Flashcards in Head and Neck Deck (76)
What bones make up the calvaria?
frontal, parietal, occipital
How are the bones of the calvaria formed?
What is special about the shape of the calvaria?
Convex shape resists impact.
What are the fontanelles?
membrane-covered parts of the skull where sutures form.
What does a bulging or tense fontanelle indicate?
increased intracranial pressure
What do sunken fontanelles indicate?
Decreased intracranial pressure, usually due to dehydration.
What are the 3 cranial fossae?
Anterior, middle, and posterior.
What makes up the anterior cranial fossa?
Frontal bone, crista galli, cribiform plate of ethmoid, lesser wings of the sphenoid
What structures does the anterior cranial fossa contain?
Frontal lobe, CN I (olfactory n.)
What makes up the middle cranial fossa?
Sphenoid, temporal bones.
What structures does the middle cranial fossa contain?
sella tursica, optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale
GFFWhat lobe of the brain rests in the middle cranial fossa?
Where are the sinuses?
Ethmoid, sphenoid, maxilla, frontal, temporal
What innervates the gums and teeth?
What does the mandible hold?
Lower row of teeth in gomphosis joint at alveolar processes
What type of joint is the TMJ?
Synovial joint with an Articular disc.
What is the articulation for the TMJ?
Between the fibular portion of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and Articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Which nerve innervates the TMJ?
Mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
What is the hyoid bone suspended from?
The stylohyoid ligaments from the stupid processes of the temporal bones.
What are the parts of the hyoid bone?
Body, 2 less coruna, and 2 greater coruna
What is unique about the hyoid bone?
It is the only bone in the human body that does not articulate with any other bone.
What is the hyoid an attachment point for?
Muscles responsible for speech and swallowing.
What bones make up the bony orbit?
Frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, lacrimal, zygomatic, and palantine
What are the bony projections on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
What bone do the superior and middle conchae come from?
The ethmoid bone.
What are the inferior conchae?
What does the roof of the nasal cavity contain?
Receptors from the olfactory nerve.
What is the nasal septum made from?
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, vomer, and cartilage
What do the conchae do?
Warm and filter inhaled air and the mucosa traps antigens.
What are sutures in the skill?
Fibrous joints between the bones of the skull.
What are the names if the sutures in the skull?
Coronal, sagiattal, lambdoidal, squamosal
What are the names of the junctions of the sutures in the skull?
Bregma, lamda, pterion
Where is the coronal suture?
Between the frontal and parietal bones.
Where is the sagiattal suture?
Between the parietals.
Where is the lambdoidal suture?
Between the parietal and occiput.
Where is the squamosal suture?
Between the parietal and temporal lobes.
What is the bregma?
Junction of the corona and sagittal sutures.
What is the lamda?
Junction between the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures.
What is the pterion?
The junction of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones.
What are the sphincter muscles of facial expression?
Orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris
What nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression?
Facial nerve (CN VII)
What are the dilator muscles of mastication?
Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid
Which nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?
Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
What are the movements of the jaw?
Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction
Where do the sutures ligaments that connect the cranial bones come from?
Remaining, unossified sheets of mesenchyme from intramembranous ossification.
What is the action of the medial pterygoid?
Elevation and protrusion.
What is the action of the lateral pterygoid?
Depression and protrusion.
What is the action of the temporalis?
Elevation and retraction.
What is the action of the masseter?
Elevation and protraction.
What are the 2 regions of the anterior neck?
Anterior triangle and posterior triangle.
What is the anterior triangle of the neck bordered by?
Sternocleidomastojd, the inferior border of the mandible, and the anterior midline of the neck.
What is the posterior triangle of the neck bordered by?
Sternocleidomastoid, the clavicle, and the trapezius.
What are the muscles of deglutition and speech?
Digastric, mylohyoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid, cricothyroid, thyrohyoid, sternothyroid
What muscles of speech/deglutition are innervated by the trigeminal nerve?
Anterior belly of the digastric, mylohyoid
What muscles of speech/deglutition are innervated by the facial nerve?
Posterior belly of the digastric
What muscles of speech/deglutition are innervated by the ansa cervicalis nerve?
Sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid
What muscle of speech/deglutition are innervated by the vagus nerve?
What muscle of speech/deglutition are innervated by the first cervical nerves via the hypoglossal nerve?
Where does the facial nerve exit the skull?
What are the five divisions of the facial nerve?
Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
What is the function of the facial nerve?
Provides motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression.
What is the function of the trigeminal nerve?
Provides sensory innervation to the face.
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?
Ophthalmic division (V1), Maxillary Division (V2), Mandibular Division (V3)
What are the 2 primary arteries to the face?
Facial artery and superficial temporal artery.
Where does the facial artery arise from?
external carotid artery
Where does the facial artery travel in the face?
Superiorly, around the lower border of the mandible, towards the midline of the face
Where does the superficial temporal artery arise from?
External carotid artery
Where does the superficial temporal artery travel in the face?
Ascends posterior to the mandible but anterior to the ear.
Where does the facial vein originate?
Just under the bony orbit.
What does the facial vein drain into?
Internal jugular vein.
What is the route of the facial vein?
Just under the bony orbit, descends obliquely towards the inferiolateral border of the mandible, into the internal jugular vein.
What does the facial vein communicate with?
Superior ophthalmic vein and deeper into the cavernous sinus.
What is a potential route of infection in the facial vein?
The communication between the facial vein and the ophthalmic vein, deeper into the cavernous sinus. From the face to the cranial dural sinus.
What do the lymphatics of the face follow?
Major blood vessels.
Where do the lymphatics of the face drain?
Inferiorly towards the heart.