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Flashcards in Head Full Of Blood Deck (70)
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1

What are the meninges?

Connective tissue covering that encloses and protects the brain and spinal cord.

2

What are the 3 parts of the meninges?

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater

3

Which meninge creates the dural folds and venous sinus system of the brain?

Dura mater

4

Which is the middle layer of the meninges?

Arachnoid mater

5

Where does CSF flow?

Under the arachnoid mater, in the subarachnoid space

6

What forms the arachnoid villi?

Arachnoid mater

7

What is the arachnoid villi responsible for?

Reabsorbing CSF and returning it to the blood stream.

8

Which layer is adherent to the brain and spinal cord?

Pia mater

9

Which layer is impermeable to fluid?

Pia mater

10

Where is the falx cerebri located?

In the longitudinal fissure

11

What are the names of the dural folds?

Falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, sellar diaphragm

12

Where is the tentorium cerebelli located?

Separates the cerebellum from the occipital lobe

13

Where is the falx cerebelli located?

Separates the cerebellar hemispheres in the posterior cranial fossa

14

Where is the sellar diaphragm?

Covers the pituitary in its fossa

15

What are denticulate ligaments?

Specialized structures of the pia mater.

16

What do the denticulate ligaments do?

Attach to the dura mater. Thought to stabilize the motion of the spinal cord.

17

Where is the filum terminali?

Extends from the lowest tip of the spinal cord. Continuous with the pia mater.

18

What is the function of the filum terminali?

Anchors the spinal cord at the level of the sacrum and coccyx.

19

What is the cauda equina?

Area for lumbar punctures, insert needle below L3

20

How is CSF propelled cranially?

By brain movements and pulsations of surface arteries.

21

What structure keeps the brain in place?

Arachnoid trabeculae

22

What are ventricles?

Intracerebral spaces that CSF move through.

23

What are the ventricles lined with?

Ependymal cells

24

What are ependymal cells?

Epithelial-like neuron list cells that can create and transport CSF and create the blood-CSF barrier.

25

Which cells are responsible for creating CSF?

Ependymal cells in the lining of the ventricles.

26

Where are the lateral ventricles?

Spaces curve from the medial part of the hemispheres around into the temporal lobes.

27

How does CSF flow from the lateral ventricle into third ventricle?

Via interventricular foramen (of Monro)

28

Where is the third ventricle?

Lies between halves of thalamus and hypothalamus

29

How does CSF flow from the third to the fourth ventricle?

Via the cerebral aqueduct

30

What structure does the cerebral aqueduct pass through?

The midbrain

31

Where is the fourth ventricle?

Between the medulla and cerebellum.

32

Where does CSF flow after the fourth ventricle?

Down into the spinal canal or into the subarachnoid space.

33

What does CSF pass through to get to the subarachnoid space?

Foramina of Luschka and Magendie

34

Where is CSF reabsorbed?

Superior sagittal sinus

35

How is CSF reabsorbed in the superior sagittal sinus?

By the arachnoid granulations.

36

What is the choroid plexus?

Modifies ependymal cells that surround capillaries

37

How does the choroid plexus generate CSF?

By filtering blood from capillaries that run through it.

38

What is the blood-CSF barrier?

Tight junctions between choroidal epithelial cells that prevent passage of large molecules.

39

What is the brain-CSF barrier?

Minimal restriction between ventricles and brain interstitium

40

Where does the common carotid artery originate?

Branches from the brachiocephalic artery

41

Where does the internal carotid split from the external carotid?

At the carotid sinus.

42

What does the internal carotid artery spit into?

Anterior and middle cerebral arteries

43

Where does the vertebral artery ascend from?

Subclavian artery

44

What does the vertebral artery pass through?

Transverse foramina of C1-C6

45

What are the basivertebral branches?

Anterior/posterior spinal arteries, posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), superior cerebellar artery, pontine arteries, labyrinthins artery

46

What are symptoms of occlusion of an anterior/posterior spinal artery?

Loss of spinal cord function at the level of occlusion

47

What are symptoms of occlusion of a posterior inferior cerebellar artery?

Wallenberg Syndrome. Loss of pain and temp. sensation on contra lateral side of the body and ipsilatetal side of the face

48

What are symptoms of occlusion of an anterior inferior cerebellar artery?

Lateral Pontine syndrome. Sudden onset of vomiting, vertigo. Ipsilatetal loss of sensation to face and facial paralysis

49

What are symptoms of occlusion of a superior cerebellar artery?

Ipsilateral limb dysmetria, contra lateral loss of sensation

50

What are symptoms of occlusion of a pontine artery?

Contralateral paralysis and loss of sensation. Often results in death. Several outcomes possible depending on size of infart

51

What are symptoms of occlusion of a labyrinthin artery?

Ipsilateral hearing loss and vertigo

52

Where is the anterior communicating artery?

Between the anterior cerebral arteries

53

Where is the posterior communicating artery?

Connects the middle to posterior cerebral arteries

54

Where is the middle cerebral artery?

Along the lateral fissure and lateral surface of the cerebral cortex

55

Where is the anterior cerebral artery?

Along the medial surface of cerebral cortex, including the cingulate gyrus

56

What are the symptoms of an occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery?

Paralysis and sensory loss in contralateral leg and foot. Abulia

57

Where is the posterior cerebral artery?

Projects to the occipital and temporal lobes.

58

What are the symptoms of an occlusion of a posterior cerebral artery?

Visual field defects, face blindness (prosopagnosia), contralateral deficits of the facial, vagus, and hypoglossal nerve and ipsilateral deficits of the oculomotor nerve.

59

Where do cerebral veins drain venous blood?

Into the dural sinuses

60

What are dural sinuses?

Venous compartments within the dura mater.

61

What are the spinal veins?

Valveless veins around the dura.

62

What does the basivertebral vein do?

Drains the vertebral body

63

What are emissary veins?

During hypothermia, cooler blood from the surface travels internally through the emissary veins to cool the brain.

64

What does the blood brain barrier consist of?

Endothelium, pericytes, atrocyte feet, and basal lamina

65

What are the BBB tight junctions maintain by?

Astrocyte feet

66

Where is there no BBB?

Hypothalamus, area postrema, other peri ventricular regions

67

Why is there no BBB in the hypothalamus?

So hormones can contact hypothalamic cell receptors

68

Why is there no BBB in the area postrema?

Digested poisons stimulate area postrema's pathway to vomiting center

69

What is the BBB permeable to?

Water and small molecules

70

What is different about the Brain-CSF barrier?

Free movement between brain interstitium and ventricles through ependymal cells.