Head and Neck: Neuroembryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck: Neuroembryology Deck (54):
1

Trilaminar Embryonic Disc forms because of which process?

Gastrulation - invasion of the epiblast cells

Formation of 3 layers; ecto, endo and mesoderm

2

Notochord induce what change in embryo?

Notochord + paraxial mesoderm induce ectoderm--> neural plate

3

Epidermis and derivatives

Ectoderm

4

Epithelial linings of mouth/rectum

Ectoderm

5

Cornea and lens

Ectoderm

6

Nervous system

Ectoderm

7

Renal medulla

Ectoderm

8

Tooth enamel

Ectoderm

9

Epithelial linings of pituitary and pineal

Ectoderm

10

Epithelial linings of gut, allantois, respiratory tract, urinary bladder/urethra, tympanic cavity and auditory tube

Endoderm

11

Parenchym of thyroid, parathyroids, liver and pancreas

Endoderm

12

Reticular stroma of tonsils and thymus

Endoderm

13

Connective tissue, bone, cartilage

Mesoderm

14

Smooth and striated muscle

Mesoderm

15

Blood and lymph cells/vessels

Mesoderm

16

Kidneys and Gonads

Mesoderm

17

Cortex of adrenal gland

Mesoderm

18

Spleen

Mesoderm

19

Neurulation

Neural plate bunches up and begins to fold first into neural groove and then neural tube + production of neural crest cells

20

How does the neural plate form the neural tube

Due to cadherins and their association to the cytoskeleton of the cell

21

Cadherins

Homophilic binding partners; use Ca2+;

22

Main reason for neural tube formation in that particular pattern

Differential expression of cadherin across the plate results in tubular arrangement eventually

23

Neural tube defect

Lack of closure of either rostral or caudal neuropore

24

Describe the types of NTDs

Spina bifida - occulta

Spina bifida - cystica

25

Spina bifida occulta

Failure of vertebral arch to close (problem with laminae) but spinal cord still enclosed within meningeal coverings

26

Spina bifida cystica

Outpouching of the dura with or without spinal cord

27

Meningomyelocele

Spinal cord + meninges outpouch through opening in vertebral column

28

Myeloschisis

absence of proper signaling to form the neural tube

29

Anencephaly

failure of rostral neural pore to close

30

Role of apoptosis

Needed for neural tube closure in dorsal aspect of tube

31

Paraxial Mesoderm

develop into somites

32

Somites

Dermatome - dermis
Scleratome - cartilage/bone
Myotome - skeletal muscle

33

3 primary vesicles

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon

34

Mesencephalic flexure

between mesencephalon and rhombencephalon

35

Cervical flexure

between rhombencephalon and spinal cord

36

Pontine Flexure

between metencephalon and myelencephalon

37

Prosencephalon

telencephalon
and diencephalon

38

Neural Crest Cells

Multipotent

39

Neural crest cell derivatives

Sensory ganglia
Parasympathetic ganglia
Cartilage and bone
Connective tissue
Endocrine cells
Pigment cells
PNS sensory neurons, supportive cells and autonomic ganglia
DRG!!

40

Germinal neuroepithelium

Pseudostratifed epithelium

41

Mantle zone

Germinal neuroepithelium produces neurons = neuroblasts that migrate laterally

42

Ventricular Zone

Germinal neuroepithelium becomes the Ventricular Zone and eventually the ependymal lining

43

Marginal zone

white matter tracts surrounding the mantle zone

44

Alar plate

Sensory, dorsal portion of developing SC

45

Basal plate

Motor, ventral portion of developing SC

46

Sulcus limitans

dividing line between alar and basal plates

47

Cerebellum formation

Alar plate neuroblasts migrate dorsally and fuse in midline - form cerebellar cortex

48

Diencephalon

formed by alar plate derivatives

49

Diencephalon derivatives/ parts

Epithalamus
Thalamus
Hypothalamus

50

Sulci in diencephalon

Epithalamic sulcus
Hypothalamic sulcus

51

Telencephalon

Alar plate derivative

52

Basal ganglia

Thickening of the mantle

53

Cerebral Cortex

Marginal layer invaded by migrating neuroblasts

54

Lamina terminalis

Connection between both hemispheres

Corpus callosum and anterior commissure