Head and Neck: Triangles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Head and Neck: Triangles Deck (49):
1

Sternocleidomastoid attachments

Mastoid process of temporal bone
Sternum
Clavicle

2

Innervation of SCM

Spinal accessory nerve i.e CN XI
*Same innervation as trapezius

3

Action of SCM

Bilateral - cervical flexion
Unilateral - lateral flexion to same side and rotation to opposite side

4

Scalene attachments

Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
First two ribs

5

Scalene Actions

Bilateral: assist in neck flexion; raise first 2 ribs

6

Scalene innervation

Ventral Rami of Cervical nerves

7

Scalenes are found where?

Anterior, Middle and Posterior scalenes are deep to SCM

8

What accessory function do scalenes serve?

Assist in respiration

9

Name the (4) infrahyoid muscles?

Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Omohyoid and Thyrohyoid

10

Name the (4) suprahyoid muscles?

Mylohyoid, Digastric, Stylohyoid and Geniohyoid

11

Thyrohyoid receives a different innervation than the rest of the infrahyoid muscles?

CN XII - hypoglossal nerve

12

Thyroid gland produces what two hormones?

Thyroid hormone - controls rate of metabolism
Calcitonin - controls calcium metabolism

13

What structure is located just deep to thyroid hormone?

Parathyroid glands

14

Parathyroid glands produce what hormone?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - regulates Ca2+ metabolism

15

Platysma attachments

Subcutaneous tissue of supra/infra clavicular regions
Base of mandible, skin of cheek, angle of mouth and orbicularis oris

16

Action of Platysma

Superior attachment - tenses the skin
Inferior attachment - depresses the mandible and draw corners of mouth inferiorly i.e grimace

17

Platysma innervation

Cervical branch of facial nerve
(To Zanzibar By Motor Car)

18

Cervical plexus made of which spinal nerves?

C1-C4

19

Name (4) cutaneous branches of Cervical Plexus
"Tom Go Lick Susie"

Transverse Cervical n.
Greater Auricular n.
Lesser Occipital n.
Supraclavicular n.

20

Ansa Cervicalis

Found in anterior wall of carotid sheath
Innervates 3/4 infrahyoid muscles

21

Phrenic nerve

C3-C5 innervates the diaphragm

22

Branches of cervical plexus emerge from where?

Posterior border of SCM = Erb's point

23

Which cranial nerve also emerges from Erb's point roughly?

CN XI - spinal accessory nerve

24

What 2 layers of cervical fascia?

Superficial and deep

25

Superficial cervical fascia contains?

cutaneous nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, fat and platysma

26

What 3 layers of deep cervical fascia?

Superficial = investing
Pretracheal
Prevertebral

27

Superfical (investing) layer of deep cervical fascia contains?

SCM and trapezius muscle

28

Pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia has what 2 layers?

Muscular layer - surrounding infrahyoid muscles
Visceral layer - surrounding thyroid gland and trachea

*Pretracheal fascia extends from hyoid bone into thorax and blends with fibrous pericardium covering the heart

29

Buccopharyngeal fascia

Thin posterior lamina of pretracheal fascia (visceral layer) that separates the esophagus from the prevertebral fascia

30

Prevertebral fascia

Last layer of deep cervical fascia that invests scalenes, deep back muscles, and vertebrae

31

Alar fascia

As prevertebral fascia continues medially anterior to the vertebrae it splits into two layers; layer against vertebral body = prevertebral fascia and layer anterior to it = alar fascia

32

Retropharyngeal space

Borders:
Anterior - buccopharyngeal fascia
Posterior - alar fascia
Lateral - carotid sheaths
Superior - base of skull
Inferior - mediastinum

33

Carotid sheath

Contains common carotid artery, internal carotid a., Internal jugular vein, Vagus nerve, deep cervical lymph nodes; formed partially by prevertebral fascia of the deep cervical fascia

34

Prevertebral Space

*a.k.a Danger Space 4
Anterior border - Alar fascia
Posterior border - prevertebral fascia
Continous from base of skull thru thorax till diaphragm

35

Posterior triangle borders

SCM, Clavicle, and Trapezius

36

2 sub triangles within Posterior Triangle

Occipital
Omoclavicular = Subclavicular

37

Occipital triangle borders

SCM, Trapezius, and inferior belly of omohyoid

38

Occipital triangle contents

Branches of cervical plexus
Trunks of brachial plexus
CN XI
Transverse cervical artery
Cervical lymph nodes
EJV

39

Omoclavicular = Subclavicular triangle borders

SCM, Clavicle, and inferior belly of omohyoid

40

Omoclavicular = Subclavicular triangle contents

Subclavian artery
Subclavian vein
Suprascapular artery
Supraclavicular lymph nodes

41

Anterior triangle borders

SCM, Mandible and midline of neck
*subdivided by omohyoid and digastric muscles

42

Carotid triangle borders

SCM, Posterior belly of digastric, Superior belly of Omohyoid

43

Carotid triangle contents

Carotid sheath, ansa cervicalis, hypoglossal nerve CN XII, sympathetic trunk

44

Muscular triangle borders

Midline of neck, Hyoid bone, Superior belly of omohyoid and SCM

45

Contents of muscular triangle

Infrahyoid muscles, thyroid and parathyroid glands

46

Submandibular triangle borders

Mandible, Both bellies of digastric muscles

47

Submandibular triangle contents

Submandibular gland
Facial artery
Facial vein
Submandibular lymph nodes

48

Submental triangle border

Hyoid bone and Anterior bellies of Digastric muscles

49

Submental triangle contents

Anterior Jugular Vein
Submental lymph nodes