Flashcards in Head and Neck: Triangles Deck (49):
Mastoid process of temporal bone
Innervation of SCM
Spinal accessory nerve i.e CN XI
*Same innervation as trapezius
Action of SCM
Bilateral - cervical flexion
Unilateral - lateral flexion to same side and rotation to opposite side
Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
First two ribs
Bilateral: assist in neck flexion; raise first 2 ribs
Ventral Rami of Cervical nerves
Scalenes are found where?
Anterior, Middle and Posterior scalenes are deep to SCM
What accessory function do scalenes serve?
Assist in respiration
Name the (4) infrahyoid muscles?
Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Omohyoid and Thyrohyoid
Name the (4) suprahyoid muscles?
Mylohyoid, Digastric, Stylohyoid and Geniohyoid
Thyrohyoid receives a different innervation than the rest of the infrahyoid muscles?
CN XII - hypoglossal nerve
Thyroid gland produces what two hormones?
Thyroid hormone - controls rate of metabolism
Calcitonin - controls calcium metabolism
What structure is located just deep to thyroid hormone?
Parathyroid glands produce what hormone?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - regulates Ca2+ metabolism
Subcutaneous tissue of supra/infra clavicular regions
Base of mandible, skin of cheek, angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
Action of Platysma
Superior attachment - tenses the skin
Inferior attachment - depresses the mandible and draw corners of mouth inferiorly i.e grimace
Cervical branch of facial nerve
(To Zanzibar By Motor Car)
Cervical plexus made of which spinal nerves?
Name (4) cutaneous branches of Cervical Plexus
"Tom Go Lick Susie"
Transverse Cervical n.
Greater Auricular n.
Lesser Occipital n.
Found in anterior wall of carotid sheath
Innervates 3/4 infrahyoid muscles
C3-C5 innervates the diaphragm
Branches of cervical plexus emerge from where?
Posterior border of SCM = Erb's point
Which cranial nerve also emerges from Erb's point roughly?
CN XI - spinal accessory nerve
What 2 layers of cervical fascia?
Superficial and deep
Superficial cervical fascia contains?
cutaneous nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, fat and platysma
What 3 layers of deep cervical fascia?
Superficial = investing
Superfical (investing) layer of deep cervical fascia contains?
SCM and trapezius muscle
Pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia has what 2 layers?
Muscular layer - surrounding infrahyoid muscles
Visceral layer - surrounding thyroid gland and trachea
*Pretracheal fascia extends from hyoid bone into thorax and blends with fibrous pericardium covering the heart
Thin posterior lamina of pretracheal fascia (visceral layer) that separates the esophagus from the prevertebral fascia
Last layer of deep cervical fascia that invests scalenes, deep back muscles, and vertebrae
As prevertebral fascia continues medially anterior to the vertebrae it splits into two layers; layer against vertebral body = prevertebral fascia and layer anterior to it = alar fascia
Anterior - buccopharyngeal fascia
Posterior - alar fascia
Lateral - carotid sheaths
Superior - base of skull
Inferior - mediastinum
Contains common carotid artery, internal carotid a., Internal jugular vein, Vagus nerve, deep cervical lymph nodes; formed partially by prevertebral fascia of the deep cervical fascia
*a.k.a Danger Space 4
Anterior border - Alar fascia
Posterior border - prevertebral fascia
Continous from base of skull thru thorax till diaphragm
Posterior triangle borders
SCM, Clavicle, and Trapezius
2 sub triangles within Posterior Triangle
Omoclavicular = Subclavicular
Occipital triangle borders
SCM, Trapezius, and inferior belly of omohyoid
Occipital triangle contents
Branches of cervical plexus
Trunks of brachial plexus
Transverse cervical artery
Cervical lymph nodes
Omoclavicular = Subclavicular triangle borders
SCM, Clavicle, and inferior belly of omohyoid
Omoclavicular = Subclavicular triangle contents
Supraclavicular lymph nodes
Anterior triangle borders
SCM, Mandible and midline of neck
*subdivided by omohyoid and digastric muscles
Carotid triangle borders
SCM, Posterior belly of digastric, Superior belly of Omohyoid
Carotid triangle contents
Carotid sheath, ansa cervicalis, hypoglossal nerve CN XII, sympathetic trunk
Muscular triangle borders
Midline of neck, Hyoid bone, Superior belly of omohyoid and SCM
Contents of muscular triangle
Infrahyoid muscles, thyroid and parathyroid glands
Submandibular triangle borders
Mandible, Both bellies of digastric muscles
Submandibular triangle contents
Submandibular lymph nodes
Submental triangle border
Hyoid bone and Anterior bellies of Digastric muscles