Flashcards in Back and Vertebral Column Deck (41):
How many vertebrae total in an adult?
26 (comes down from 33 after fusion of certain areas)
Number of cervical vertebrae?
7 (breakfast at 7)
Number of thoracic vertebrae?
12 (lunch at 12)
Number of lumbar vertebrae?
5 (dinner at 5)
How many sacral vertebrae?
How many coccygeal vertebrae?
Name the seven common processes on any given vertebra?
1 spinous process
2 transverse processes
4 articular processes (2 superior/2 inferior)
The pedicles are found where?
They are found connecting the vertebral arch to the body of the vertebra
The lamina are found where?
The lamina connect the spinous process to the transverse processes
The spinal cord is housed where?
In the vertebral CANAL formed by the stacking of vertebrae and lining up of their vertebral FORAMEN
Name the 2 Atypical Vertebrae
Atlas - C1
Axis - C2
Special features of atlas?
Foramen in transverse processes for passage of vertebral arteries
No body and no spinous processes
Lateral masses that articulate with occipital condyles of skull
Special features of axis?
Odontoid process = dens
C1 and the skull articulate at which joint?
Atlanto-occipital joint (Flexion/Extension = yes)
C2 and C1 articulate and which joint?
Atlanto-axial joint (Rotation = no)
Cervical vertebrae notable for?
Foramen in transverse processes (passageway for vertebral arteries to the brain)
Thoracic vertebra notable for..?
Costal facets - articulations with ribs
Lumbar vertebrae are distinguished by?
Massive vertebral body w/ short spinous processes
Primary curvatures of the spine occur in which (2) regions?
Thoracic and Sacral/coccygeal = kyphotic = flexed forward
Cervical and Lumbar region - Lordotic
Hunchback = excessive forward curvature
Kyphosis (in a sagittal plane)
Lateral curvature of the spine
Scoliosis (in a coronal plane)
(4) movements of the vertebral column?
Flexion (bend forward), Extension (backwards), Lateral flexion and Rotation
Name the (2) types of joints found in the vertebral column?
Intervertebral joints - between the bodies; symphysis
Zygapophyseal joints - between the articular processes; synovial joints = facet joint
Describe two components of intervertebral Discs?
Nucleus pulposus (inner jelly) and anulus fibrosus (outer rings)
Name the 5 ligaments associated with vertebral column?
Anterior longitudinal ligament - anterior surface of body
Posterior longitudinal ligament - posterior surface of body
Ligamentum flavum - connects lamina of adj. vertebrae
Supraspinous and Interspinous
Supraspinous ligament known as what in the cervical region?
There are 33 vertebrae but how many spinal segments?
31 (8C, 12T, 5L, 5S, 1C)
Where does the spinal cord end?
Conus medullaris @ L1-L2 (why you can do a LP at L4-L5)
Where do spinal nerves exit from?
Cervical spinal nerves (C1-C7) exit where wrt their corresponding vertebra?
All other spinal nerves exit where wrt their corresponding vertebra?
Disc herniations occur commonly in which portion of the IV disc?
Posterolateral portion due to lack of protecting ligaments and relative thinness of anulus fibrosus (commonly seen L4/L5 or C5/C6)
Spina bifida (occulta)
failure of vertebral laminae to fuse (spinous processes at lumbar/sacaral level fail to form) asymptomatic
Spina bifida (cystica)
a cyst protrudes through the defect in vertebral arch; can be detected in utero; may present with hydrocephalus as complication
Spina bifida (cystica w/ meningocele)
protrusion of meninges through defect in spinal column; contains CSF
Spina bifida (cystica w/ meningomyelocele)
protrusion of meninges AND spinal cord through defect in vertebral column; stretch of lumbosacral spinal nerves produces complications (bladder, bowel or lower limb weakness)
Inserting on mastoid process, sup. nuchal line
N: Dorsal rami of spinal nerve
A: Lateral flexion and rotate neck to side of active muscle (acting alone); Extend head and neck (both active)
Inserting on transverse processes of C1-C4
N: Dorsal rami of spinal nerve
A: Lateral flexion and rotate neck to side of active muscle (alone); extend head and neck (both active)
Inserting between sup. and inf. nuchal lines
N: Dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves
A: Extends neck and rotates head to opposite side