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Flashcards in Health Aspects of Water Supply Deck (51):
1

Identify type of water-related disease:
• Transmitted through ingestion of contaminated water
• Water – carrier of the infectious agent/pathogen

Water-borne disease

2

Which is not a Water-borne disease?
A. Dengue
B. Amoebiasis
C. Cholera
D. Hepatitis

A

3

Identify water-borne disease with the clinical sign
A.rice water-like with fishy smell
B.rose-colored spots

A.cholera
B.typhoid fever

4

Differentiate acute fr chronic amoebiasis

Acute - can present as diarrhea or dysentery with frequent, small and often bloody stools
Chronic - can present with gastrointestinal symptoms plus fatigue, weight loss, and occasional fever

5

False about cryptosporidiosis
A.Mainly affects children and causes self-limiting diarrheal illness in healthy individuals
B.Cause of prolonged and persistent diarrhea in children and of severe, prolonged diarrhea in persons with AIDS
C.Extensive water-borne outbreaks have resulted from contamination of municipal water and recreational waters (e.g. swimming pools, ponds, lakes)
D.Not resistant to chlorination

D

6

Identify step in water treatment
• Often the first 2 steps in water treatment
• Chemicals with positive charge are added to the water
• The particles bind with the chemicals to form larger particles

Coagulation and Flocculation

7

Arrange steps of water treatment
A.Disinfection
B.Coagulation and Flocculation
C.Sedimentation
D.Filtration

B
C
D
A

8

Not a characteristic of low-risk water sources
A.The water source is fully enclosed or capped, and no surface water can run directly into it.
B.People do not step into the water while collecting it
C.Latrines are located as near as possible from the water source and preferably not on lower ground

C.Latrines are located as near as possible from the water source and preferably not on lower ground

Dapat far tapos dapat hindi on higher ground

9

Not a characteristic of low-risk water sources

A.Solid waste pits, animal excreta and other pollution sources are located as far as possible from the water source. B.There is no stagnant water within 15 meters of the water source.
C.If wells are used the collection buckets are kept clean and off the ground

B
5 m dapat

10

False about Pour-flush latrine:

A.technology for excreta disposal; most common found in communities
B.Small volumes of water (commonly 1-3L) are used to flush feces into the pit
C.Most appropriate where people use water to clean themselves after defecating and where people have access to reliable water supplies close to home.
D.Not prone to breakage even if solid materials are flushed down the pipes

D
Dapat: prone if solid materials are flushed down the pipes

11

Which is false?
A.Effects of water's chemical effects tend to be long-term and chronic.
B.Hepatitis is never asymptomatic.
C.Amoebiasis may be acute or chronic.
D.NOTA

B
It may have symptoms

12

identify the disease: main manifestation of water-borne disease + 3rd leading cause of morbidity and 4th leading
cause of mortality among children under-5 years old

diarrhea

13

Mode of transmission of water-borne disease

feco-oral route

14

In cholera, Healthy carrier state may follow acute
illness. T/F

F
this is for typhoid fever

15

causative agent of amoebiasis

Entamoeba histolytica

16

identify type of water-related disease: Transmission depends on the quantity of water used rather than the quality

water-washed disease

17

What are the two kinds of infection in water-washed diseases?

1. infection of skin and eyes
2. infection transmitted by lice

18

Which is not a water-washed disease?
A. scabies
B. trachoma
C. cryptosporidiosis
D. NOTA

C

19

False about scabies
A. Worm burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs
B. Most common symptoms are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash
C. Usually spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies
D. Spreads rapidly under overcrowded conditions

A
mite, not worm

20

causative agent of scabies

 Sarcoptes scabiei

21

true about trachoma
A.Spread easily through discharge from an infected child’s ears
B. trachoma is passed by hands, on clothing or by flies that land on the face of the infected child
C. Infection usually first occurs in childhood but people do not become deaf until adulthood

B
trachoma affects eyes, not ears

22

enumerate two ways on how to prevent water-washed diseases

 Increase water quantity used
 Improve accessibility and reliability of domestic water supply

23

identify type of water-related disease: Pathogen spends part of its life cycle in water

water-based disease

24

Which is a water-based disease?
A. Dengue
B. Amoebiasis
C. Filariasis
D. Schistosomiasis

D

25

most practical prevention move for water-based diseases

Reduce contamination of surface water

26

Define water-vectored disease

Spread by insects which either breed in water or bite near water

27

Which is not a water-vectored disease?
A. Dengue
B. Amoebiasis
C. Filariasis
D. Malaria

B

28

Not a preventive measure for water-vectored disease
A.Destroy breeding sites of insects
B.Environmental modification
C.Proper waste disposal
D.Use mosquito netting

C

29

Classify the ff according to Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec (Category I-VI)
A. Cholera
B. Campylobacter
C. Hepa A
D. Giardiasis

A & B: Category II
C & D: Category I

30

Differentiate Category II fr I, Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec

Category II - carrier state is possible
This is not the case for Category I

31

What is Category III for Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec

Soil-transmitted helminthes (STH), latent and persistent with NO intermediate host

32

Classify the ff according to Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec (Category I-VI)
A. Schistosomiasis
B. Taeniasis
C. Ascariasis
D. Clonorchiasis

A & D: Cat V
B: Cat IV
C: Cat III

33

Classify the ff according to Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec (Category I-VI)
A. Paragonimiasis
B. Filariasis
C. Hookworm infection
D. Amoebic dysentery

A. V
B. VI
C. III
D. I

34

Name 1 preventive measure that will work for Envt Classif Of Excreta-Rel Infec (Category I-V)

Provision of toilets

35

Which is true?
A. Adequate cooking is an acceptable preventive measure for Cat III to VI
B. Mosquito net is an acceptable preventive measure for Cat I to VI
C. Excreta treatment prior to land application is an acceptable preventive measure for Cat III to V
D. NOTA

C

A - IV and V lang
B -VI lang

36

Health educ & Domestic water supply are acceptable control measures for:
A. Cat I & II
B. Cat III & IV
C. Cat V & VI
D. AOTA

A

37

Yard contamination - mode of transmission for:
A. Category I and II
B. Category III and IV
C. Category V and VI
D. NOTA

B

38

Person-to-person contact & Domestic contamination are modes of transmission for:
A. Category I and II
B. Category III and IV
C. Category V and VI
D. NOTA

A

39

Crop contamination- mode of transmission for:
A. Category II and III
B. Category I and IV
C. Category V and VI
D. NOTA

A

40

Water contamination- mode of transmission for:
A. Category I and III
B. Category II and V
C. Category IV and VI
D. NOTA

B

41

Absence of chemicals is not generally a problem because there are alternative sources.
T/F

T

42

__ deficiency in water causes poor growth of bones and teeth in the young + leads to Higher incidence of dental caries
A. Chloride
B. Fluoride
C. Iodide

B

43

Which is false?
A.Water softness indicates low amount in carbonates, Ca, Mg, Sr
B. It is associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular disease
C. Divalent cations (calcium, magnesium, strontium) contribute to water hardness
D.Technology for detecting organic pollutants is complex

B
Lower dapat

44

What are micropollutants?

Very low concentration which sometimes cannot be detected by equipments

45

False about trihalomethanes
A. Most well-studied contaminant in water
B. Formed when residual fluorine reacts with organics in water
C. Carcinogenic

B
Chlorine dapat

46

Which is false?
A.in some inorganic elements, the contribution of water is likely to be major when compared with the intake in food
B.chloride & sulfate makes water unpalatable
C.AOTA

A
minor dapat, due to biomagnification & bioaccumulation

47

False about excess fluoride
A. associated with mottling of tooth enamel
B. From naturally occurring geol deposit
C. Chronic exposure may lead to stiffness and pain in the joints and skeletal deformities
D. Acute exposure may lead to dental caries

D

48

False about excess nitrate
A. Reduced to nitrites and can cause methemoglobinemia among infants
B. Nitrate may cause increase in hemoglobin capacity
C. A rising nitrate level can indicate continuing pollution

B

49

Common symptoms of __ poisoning
include inflamed eyes and skin lesions
A.Vanadium
B.Lithium
C.Arsenic
D.Germanium

C

50

Where does most of natural arsenic come from?

Most natural arsenic comes from the reduction of arsenic complexes and from the oxidation of arsenic containing minerals exposed by falling groundwater tables induced through over abstraction or reduced recharge

51

How can water sources be exposed to pharmaceuticals?

through sewage, which carries excreta of individuals and patients who have used these chemicals, from uncontrolled drug exposal