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Flashcards in Air Pollution Deck (67):
1

Why is the stratosphere called the “inversion layer”?

Presence of ozone traps UV radiation --> higher distance, higher Temp

2

T/F: Volcanoes emit air pollutants which contribute to the increase in global atmospheric temperature.

False – sulfate and air salts has cooling effect

3

These are well-defined areas where several several sources of air pollutants are present. Identify!

Area sources

4

Factors that contribute to the disequilibrium mixture of chemical species in the atmosphere. Enumerate!

Existence of life, photosynthesis, microbiological processes

5

What are stationary sources of air pollutants? Give one example for each of them.

: a. Area sources – industrial processing zones
b. Point sources – chimneys, power plant smokestacks
c. Fugitive sources – farms, landfills, dirt roads, open pit mines

6

Differentiate primary from secondary air pollutants.

Primary: directly emitted into atmosphere; Secondary: formed from rxns involving other pollutants in atmosphere/sunlight

7

What are criteria air pollutants?

Monitored by the government because these have significant health and environmental effects

8

A greenhouse gas which has an atmospheric residence time of approximately 150 years and is destroyed in the stratosphere by photolysis.

Nitrous oxide

9

Give 3 examples of natural source of carbon monoxide.

Forest fire, vegetation, oceans

10

The major contributor to the atmospheric particulate matter concentration.

Soil dust

11

Why is there greater affinity of anthropogenic trace elements to PM2.5 when compared to PM10?

Greater surface area

12

Tropospheric ozone is predominantly formed by reactions involving: (1), (2), (3).

Sunlight, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic cpds

13

Factors which favor the formation of tropospheric ozone. Enumerate

Basin-like topography, high T, high solar flux

14

Ruminants - natural source of __
A. Methane
B. Ethane
C. Propane
D. Butane

A

15

Enumerate 3 most common sources of air pollution (indoor)

. Airconditioning system, bioeffluents, building occupants

16

Which is true?
A.Air pollutants only affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
B.At intermediate doses, forests can act as sinks for atmospheric pollutants.
C.Some aerosols reflect light, while some absorb light.

C - An aerosol’s effect on light depends primarily
on the composition and color of the particles. brighter - reflect, darker - absorb.

B - low doses dapat

17

Why does exposure to carbon monoxide result in impaired performance of tasks requiring vigilance?

Amt of oxygen delivered to brain is diminished

18

Prolonged exposure to this type of air pollutant results in impaired information processing and storage, muscle weakness and paralysis.

Lead

19

Stipulates the phase out of all substances that deplete the ozone layer. …

Montreal Protocol

20

Cite one example of the major challenges in the monitoring of air pollutants in the country

Limited equipment available, intermittent monitoring, mostly focused on TSP.

21

T/F: PAG-ASA monitors criteria air pollutants.

False, they monitor meteorological conditions.

22

An engineering control which diverts air pollutant.

Chimneys

23

0.001% of atmosphere is composed of
A. Heavy metals
B. Noble gases
C. Halogens
D. NOTA

B

24

Only mechanism that can account fo most of the oxygen in the atmosphere
A.Existence of life
B.photosynthesis
C.microbiological processes

B

25

Enumerate the layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest

Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Exosphere

26

Radioactive region of the atmosphere
A.Troposphere
B.Stratosphere
C.Mesosphere
D.Thermosphere
E.Exosphere

E

27

Temperature increases indefinitely due to the inability to lose energy/heat via radiative transfer/cooling
A.Troposphere
B.Stratosphere
C.Mesosphere
D.Thermosphere
E.Exosphere

D

28

↑ Height ↓ Temperature in mesosphere because
_____

Ultraviolet radiation absorption can no longer compete with the cooling processes happening in this layer

29

In the mesosphere, At around 90 km, the atmospheric temperature reaches a second minimum. What is this called?

Mesopause

30

Where ozone usually is
A.Troposphere
B.Stratosphere
C.Mesosphere
D.Thermosphere
E.Exosphere

B

31

Receives most of the anthropogenic and biogenic emissions; where weather occurs
A.Troposphere
B.Stratosphere
C.Mesosphere
D.Thermosphere
E.Exosphere

A

32

Which is true?
A.Indoor air pollution is as important as outdoor
air pollution
B.All products of volcanic eruption have cooling effect on atmosphere.
C.Volatile organic compounds @ forest mainly come from grass.
D.NOTA

A

B - black carbon has warming effect
C - pine trees dapat

33

Enumerate 5 natural sources of air pollution

volcanic eruption
forest fire
desert dust storm
ocean
saltwater lake

34

How is carbon monoxide formed @ forest fire?

result of the incomplete
combustion of wood, nitric oxide, nitrogen
dioxide

35

1. Another name for Asian dust?
2. False about it?
a. long-range
b. transported by water

1. Kosa
2. b (air dapat)

36

Which is/are indication(s) of bursting of bubbles in oceans?
A.KCl
B.CaSO4
C.Na2SO4
D.chlorides
E.sulfates

A,B and C

D & E - sea salt

37

Differentiate point source from fugitive source of air pollution

point source - Identifiable sources that emit pollutants from one or more controllable sites
fugitive source - Generate air pollutants fr open areas exposed to wind

38

Which isn't a primary air pollutant?
A. sulfur dioxide
B. carbon monoxide
C. ozone
D. NOTA

C

39

Enumerate sulfur dioxide's anthropogenic sources.

1. Burning of fossil fuels (coal and gasoline)
2. Industrial processes such as petroleum refining
3. Production of paper, cement, aluminum
4. Burning of fuel containing sulfur

40

Which can become a secondary air pollutant?
A. sulfur dioxide
B. carbon monoxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. NOTA

A
(when it becomes fine particulate sulfate)

41

Main source of nitrogen oxide - identify

Production by industry and traffic (major
contributor)

42

What is a sink for an air pollutant?

natural or artificial reservoir that
accumulates and stores air pollutants for an
indefinite period

43

False about nitrous oxide
A. both a criteria pollutant & an atmospheric greenhouse
gas
B. source of the highly reactive oxygen radical that can react with other pollutants in atmosphere to form 2ndary pollutants
C. destroyed in the stratosphere by photolysis

A - it is not criteria pollutant

44

Which is false?
A. CO is formed by the incomplete combustion of carboncontaining
materials
B. CO is formed from the photochemical conversion of atmospheric CH4 and other hydrocarbons
C. 90% of carbon monoxide comes from anthropogenic sources
D. Ozone may be transported via long-range

C
natural dapat

D - Ozone from China
reaches the Philippines; ozone measured is not
sure if from NO2 and VOCs emitted in the
country

45

Respirable particulates: enumerate the 2 most common! And identify their sources!

Coarse fraction (PM 10) - consists mainly of
organic material, silicates (from sand) and
larger soot aggregates
o Fine fraction (PM 2.5) – from combustion
processes; secondary particulates from
chemical reactions in the atm. (e.g. acid
condensates & sulfates)

46

Which gas contributes the most to the greenhouse effect? Identify also its latest value (2012)!
A. sulfur dioxide
B. carbon monoxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. carbon dioxide

D - 392.6 ppm

47

Which gas/es are measured on ice cores?
A. methane
B. carbon monoxide
C. nitrogen oxide
D. carbon dioxide

A & D

48

Which is false?
A.Methane is formed in coal during the process of coalification.
B.methane is removed from the atmosphere by reaction with hydroxyl radical
C.methane has no natural sources
D.Methane is more efficient in trapping radiation than CO2.

C
Meron siyang natural sources, like ruminants

49

Identify the phenomenon!
occupants of a building experience acute health effects that seem to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified

Sick building syndrome

50

Centralized airconditioning systems are foolproof --outdoor air pollution cannot enter inside the building. T/F

F - when installed outdoor air intake is introduced to dilute indoor air contaminant, pollutants like CO, NO2, particulates may be introduced inside the building

51

Among the ff comp of acid rain, which is the most abundant in acid rain?
A.carbon dioxide
B.nitrogen oxide
C.sulfur dioxide

A

52

Which is false?
A.pOH increase in precipitation is mostly attributed to secondary reactions of the acid gases SO2 and NO2
B.Brownian condensation is when aerosols coagulate to form particles with diameter of 0.3 micrometers
C.Killer London Smog occurred because inversion layer did not work properly
D.Air pollutants have combined/synergistic effects

B
Brownian diffusion dapat

53

Enumerate 3 air monitoring facilities in the Philippines

DENR
Manila Observatory
PNRI

54

Which regions in the Philippines have continuous automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations which measure SO2, NO2 and O3?

Regions VII, X, XI and CAR

55

Enumerate 3 problems in air pollution monitoring here in the country

Intermittent monitoring of PM10 and gaseous pollutants
Partial compliance with the required minimum TSP sampling
Inadequate financing

56

Which is false?
A. Air pollutants have synergistic effects
B. Air pollutants are only inhaled
C. Air pollutants will exacerbate preexisting respiratory symptoms

(B) - pwede ring ingested and absorbed sa skin.

57

Which may cause inflammation & increased reactivity
A. PM 2.5
B. Nitrogen oxides
C. Lead
D. Carbon monoxide

(A)

58

Which does not cause pulmonary deterioration
A. PM 2.5
B. Nitrogen oxides
C. PM 10
D. Lead

D

A - bronchial asthma exacerbation
B - pulmonary edema

59

Binds reversibly to hemoglobin with an affinity 200–230
times that of oxygen, reducing oxygen delivery to key
organs and the developing fetus
A. PM 2.5
B. Nitrogen oxides
C. Lead
D. Carbon monoxide

D

60

False about reactive oxygen species
A.Highly reactive hydroxyl radical able to induce
oxidative RNA damage
B.affect heart rate, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and progression of atherosclerosis
C.may exacerbate myocardial ischemia and
increase cardiovascular mortality

A

DNA dapat

61

Phytotoxic air pollutants include ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, fluorides and
peroxyacetyl nitrate. These may enter plants via primary & secondary pathways. Differentiate!

Primary – through the stomata
Secondary – through the root systems (air
pollutants are deposited on soils and surface waters

62

Which of the ff effects of phytotoxic air pollutants refers to spotty patern of injury?
A.Necrosis
B.Chlorosis
C.Flecking/Stippling
D.Early Senescence

C

A - tissue collapse
B - few chloroplasts

63

Why are chlorofluorocarbons considered harmful?

They destroy the ozone in the atmosphere:
Cl2CF2 + UV light --> ClCF2 + Cl
Cl + O3 --> ClO + O2
ClO + O3 --> Cl + 2O2

64

Which is not part of the Clean Air Act?
A. Incineration is prohibited.
B. The Department of Trade and Industry will implement the
emission standards for motor vehicles.
C. DENR shall phase-out ozone depleting substances & shall be in-charge of eliminating dioxins & furans.

B
DOTC dapat

65

Which decrease is not mandated by Clean Air Act?
A. ↓ concentration of aromatics & benzene in
unleaded gasoline
B. ↓ concentration of sulfur in automotive
diesel & industrial diesel fuel
C. ↓ concentration of nitrogen in fertilizers

C

66

Which air pollution control measure uses a mechanical handling device, and only minimizes air pollutants?
A. substitution of materials, machines, processes or operations
B. enclosure
C. isolation
D. ventilation

B

67


Air contaminants are reduced, but still relatively the most ineffective.
A. substitution of materials, machines, processes or operations
B. enclosure
C. isolation
D. ventilation

D