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Flashcards in heart failure Deck (33)
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1

HFpEF aka?

diastolic HF, PSF

2

HFpEF caused by

hypertrophic walls (stiffness) - LVH, HCM

3

HFpEF will result in _____ left atrial pressure bc____

Increase; LV not filling

4

Causes of HFpEF

1. increase afterload/pressure overload
2. myocardial thickening
3. external compression

5

HFrEF aka

LVSD, systolic HF

6

HFrEF caused by

DCM (Dilated), decrease inotropy (to meet demands)

7

Causes of HFrEF

1. heart cell destruction
2. Overstressed heart muscle
3. Volume overload

8

SIgns of low flow

decrease perfusion to:
kidney, muscle, cerebral, gut

9

Signs of high L sided Pressure (increase EDV to increase SV comp)

Increase pulmonary venous pressure:
Dyspnea
excercise
orthopnea
paraxysmal noctural dyspnea
acute pulmonary edema

10

Difference between orthopnea/paraxysmal noctural dyspnea

Immediate/delayed (intravascular/intersitital)

11

Signs of high R sided pressure

increase Central venous presssure
peripheral swelling
ascites
hepatic congestion
intestinal congestions

12

Precipitating factor for HF

high circulating volume and pressure, decrease inotropy, arrhthmia, increase metabolic demands, non-adherence with HF medication

13

Causes of increase circulating volume

retention of Na/water
renal failure

14

causes of increase pressure/afterload

HTN
Aortic stenosis
PE

15

causes of Decrease inotropy

MI
Beta/ca blocker

16

Causes of Arrhythmias that lead to HF

bradycardia
Afib

17

Increased metabolic demands include

pregnancy, fever, infection

18

Describe NYHA functional class

asymptomatic, mod exertion, mild, at rest

19

Describe ACC/AHA HF stages

High risk, structural/no symp, with symp, need intervention

20

Signs of low flow

cool extremities, tachycardia, low pulse pressure

21

signs of elevated L sided filling

rales, hypoxia, tachypnea

22

Signs of right sidded pressure elevated

edema
JVP = CVP = RA pressure increase
Hepatic congestion/hepatomegaly

23

S3 caused by

Early in diastole - LV opens fast and stops
HFrEF (dialated heart)

24

S4 caused by

atrial contraction - stiff hypertrophic LV (HFpEF)
NOT in afib

25

Test for HF includes

CXR, BNP, EKG, Echo, swan/RH catheterization, CMP/CBC, vitals

26

what is BNP and importance?

B-type natriuretic - from myocardium due to:
ventricular stretch, hyperadrenergic state/RAAS/activation/Ischemia
Negative predictive value

27

Diuretics for HF bc

decrease Na/Water excretion (volume overload)
Decrease venous congestions
Decrease dyspnea/edema

28

Neurohormonal antagonists (for HF_EF) includes:

HFrEF
ACEII, ARB

29

ACEI effects

direct vasodilation
Decrease aldosterone activation

30

ARB effects

vasodilation, decrease aldosterone activation
ACEI without cough