hematological system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in hematological system Deck (34):
1

acute hemorrhage

correct hemoglobin won't show up unit 24 hours of hemorrhage.

Loss of 15% or higher = orthostatic hypotension

2

neutropenia

frequent infections
ANC, absolute neutrophil count of

3

b12 defeciency

gradual peripheral neuropathy, ataxia (postive romberg test), loss of vibration sense,.

4

hodginks lymphoma

a cancer of B lymphocytes
pain with injection of alcoholic drinks, painless lymph nodes of the neck.

Common age 20-40yo or >60 yo, while male

5

multiple myeloma

cancer of plasma cells.
The plasma cells are a type of WBC IN BONE MARROW . With this condition, a group of plasma cells becomes cancerous and multiplies.
The disease can damage the bones, immune system, kidneys, and red blood cell count.
Symptoms may not be present or may be non-specific, such as loss of appetite, bone pain, and fever.bone pain in the BACK PAIN or CHEST PAIN
proteinuria with Bence- jones protein

6

bence jones protein suggested of what?

multiple myeloma

7

thrombocytopenia

platelet count

8

normal platelet count

150,000-450,000

9

normal hemoglobin in males/females

males: 14-18 g/dl
females: 12-16g/dl

10

normal hematocrit males/females

males: 42-52%
females: 37-47%

11

MCV

80-100

12

MCHC

color of the RBC
noral: 31-37g/dl

13

MCH

indirect measure of the color of RBC
normal 25-35

14

TIBC

total iron binding capacity
measure of available transferrin left unbent (transferrin transfers iron to the body)
ELEVATED if LOW iron
normal 250-410mcg

15

Serum ferritin

storage form of iron produced in the intestines (spleen, over, marrow)

most SENSITIVE test for iron deficiency anemia

Iron def: decreased
thalassemia: normal to high ( high dt given iron supplements)
normal: 20-400 ng/dl

16

RDW

red cell distribution width. ELEVATED in iron def and thalassemia (variability of RBC size)

17

reticulocytes (aka stabs)

immature RBC that still have their nuclei. after 24 hours they mature into RBC. RBC survive 120 days before broken down by the liver.
normal value: .5% - 2.5% of total RBC count

>2.5%= reticulocytosis. Plateletes make more RBC. elevated with iron supplementation or iron, folate, or b12, acute bleeding, leukemia. NOT WITH CHRONIC BLEED.

if NOT increased, check bone marrow failure ( aplastic amemai)

18

poikilocytosis

SEVERE iron def anemia. may be also anisocytoiss (variable sizes)

19

WBC

normal value 5,000-10,000/10mm3

20

hemoglobin electrophoresis

"gold standard" tests for sickle cell and thalassemia

21

secondary polycythemia

copd, chronic smoker, high altitudes

22

anemia

23

iron def. anemia

#1 cause: BLOOD LOSS
microcytic
hypochromic

24

classic case of iron def anemia

pallor of skin, nail beds, glossitis (sore and shiny red tongue), angular chelitis (skin fissure corner of mouth), cravings for ice and dirt (pica)

SEVERE: koilonychia (spoon shaped nails), systolic murmur, tachy, heart failure

25

labs for iron def

dsg test:
TIBC (>410)
>RDW

microcytic

26

thalassemia minor

microcytic, hypochromic
Ferritin increase or normal

27

normacytic anemia

MCV 80-100, normochromic
hx of chronic disease
or inflammatory disease (RA)

28

b12 /folate def/pernicious anemia (b12)

macrocytic, megaloblastic RBC
normochromic

29

supplementation of iron



325mg ferrous sulfate. po TID, take with meals, with vitC
increase fiver and fluids
iron rich foods (beans, veges)
AVOID: ANTACIDS, daily, quiolones, tetracycline

30

thalassemia minor or trait

if partner also has treat, 25% chance to children
beta thalassemia, abnormal hgb, a2, hgbF
NORMAL to HIGH ferritin level

31

pernicious anemia cause

autoimmune, destruction of parietal cells in the funds resulting in cessation of intrinsic factor production, necessary to absorb b12 from the small intestine.

b12 sources; meal, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese

Neuropathic s/s (numbness, tingling,

32

if MCV >100 what to order

b12 and folate

33

b12 def s/s

ONLY one with neurologic s/s (tingling/numb)

34

ferritin and serum iron level in thalassmia

norm to high