Hematology Error List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology Error List Deck (17):
1

What defines an Acute Leukemia

Acute: Precursors so >20% blasts

2

What defines a Chronic Leukemia

Chronic: Differentiated, so

3

What defines Myeloid Leukemia

Myeloid: Granules (neutrophils, basophils, mast cells, macrophages)

4

What defines a Lymphocytic Leukemia

Lymphocytic: B-Cells and T-Cells (lymphocytes)

5

What are features of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Adults, 50 yrs old
Granulocyte Precursor (>20% blasts)
Sx: Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Neutropenia, Gingival Hyperplasia, Bone Pain
Dx: AUER RODS
Tx: Combined Chemo

6

What are features of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Adults, 50 yrs
Differentiated cells

7

What are features of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

KIDS
B-Cell or T-Cell Precursors (Lymphocytes)
Fatigue, lethargy, bone pain, Headache, stiff neck, visual changes
Dx: Hypercellular bone marrow
Tx: Oral Chemo (Hydroxurea, Imatinib)
Very response, good prognosis

8

What are features of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Most common form in adults
Usually >70yrs
B-Cell Clonal Malignancy
Sx: Asymptomatic, fatigue, increased infections
Dx: SMUDGE CELLS, Well differentiated Lymphocytes
Tx: Observation, if chronic use oral chemo, if acute treat like AML

9

What is G6PD

X-linked recessive train that affects mianly males, AA
Oxidative Stress leads to hemolytic anemia after spleen destroys RBC

10

What causes oxidative stress in G6PD

Infections (DKA, pneumonia)
Fava Beans
Sulfa Drugs (TMP-SMX), Anti-Malarials

11

Sx of G6PD

Episodic, non-immune hemolytic anemia
Back or abdominal pain, fatigue, jaundice, splenomegaly

12

Dx of G6PD

Peripheral Smear: Hemolytic Anemia, Schistocytes (Bite Cells), Heinz Bodies
Labs: Increased reticulocytes, increased direct bilirubin, decreased Haptoglobin

13

Tx of G6PD

Avoid offending food/drug, self-limited
Severe Anemia needs iron and folic acid supplement, blood transfusion

14

What is Sickle Cell Anemia

Autosomal Recessive disorder of HgbSS
RBC sickling causes thrombosis that can lead to organ damage and hemolytic anemia (spleen destroys defective RBC)

15

Sx of Sickle Cell Anemia

Dactylitis at 6 months of age
Infections: Osteomyelitis, increased risk of infections
Hemolytic Anemia: Jaundice, Gallstones, Penumococcal Meningitis
Infarction Signs: Avascular necrosis of bones, splenic sequestration crisis (splenomegaly), skin ulcers
Painful Occlusive Crisis: triggered by cold, hypoxia, infection, dehydration

16

Dx of Sickle Cell Anemia

Hemoglobin Electrophoresis: Sickle Cell Disease see no HgbA, High HgBF, and HgbS
Peripheral Smear: Target Cells, Sickled Erythroctyes, Howell-Jolly Bodies

17

Tx of Sickle Cell Anemia

Pain contorl (IV hydration, Oxygen)
Hydroxurea
Folic Acid
Transfusion