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How secure was England in late 15th Century?

Loss of Hundred year's war with France = no land except Calais.
No standing army, vulnerable to attack from Scotland and France.
Important to maintain relationship with Netherlands because of Cloth Trade.


Initial situation in Brittany/France

Henry took refuge in Brittany when he was exiled, needed Brittany to remain independent so that Channel coast wasn't in control of French. France = traditional enemy, and also allied to Scotland wit 'Auld Alliance'.


Initial situation in Scotland

Allied with France so could be attacked from both ends simultaneously.
Raids across border were common, garrisons at Berwick and Carlisle.
Scotland = nuisance rather than serious threat.


Initial situation in Spain

More likely to come into conflict with France than with England, so might see England as an ally against France.


Initial situation in Burgundy

Trade meant it was the most important area.
Margaret of Burgundy gave support to Yorkist claimants, but because of the importance of cloth trade it made this relationship complicated.


Initial situation in the HRE

Maximilian married Mary of Burgundy giving them a closer relationship to England. Also had claims to land in Italy.


Initial situation in Italy

A collection of states.
Italian wars 1494 diverted attention away from Northern Europe, making Henry's position less vulnerable.


Aims of Henry?

Secure the throne from both domestic and foreign threats.
gain recognition for the Tudor dynasty from other European powers.
Avoid was if at all possible - protect from invasion and build up financial resources.


Threat of invasion and impact?

Other Claimants
France and Scotland:
-Allied so more threatening because could face a war on two fronts.


Dynastic threats and impact?

Henry's claim to the throne was weak.
He sought alliances with other powers so that they wouldn't support claimants.
Marriage alliances - married his children to sons and daughters of other European rulers.


Financial position and impact?

Avoidance of war was a major aim because of how costly it was.
Avoid war with France especially as it was financially stronger than England.


Outline his economic goals

Increased revenue from trade would strengthen monarchy
1485-92: Policy of diplomacy
1493-1502:peace with Scotland secured
1503-09: Henry's position weakened and he became isolated.


Success in his early years?

Successful in securing support abroad.
One-year truce with France, extended to 1489.
Commercial treaty with Brittany 1486.
Three year truce with Scotland 1486.
BUT, Lambert Simnel caused diplomatic problems, challenging his security and initial agreements made.


How did Henry handle the Breton Crisis?

Henry needed to keep Brittany independent so that the whole of the channel coast didn't come under French control.
1489 Treaty of Redon: Henry sent 6000 troops to aid in their defence against France.
1491: Brittany accepted defeat, France in control.
Henry had raised a lot of money but not spent it, so he would lose credibility if he didn't fight the French.


Invasion of France 1492

Intended to assert his claim to the French throne.
Went over in October: campaigning season over so any conflict would be short.
Treaty of Etaples:
-Charles would give no aid to English rebels (Warbeck)
-Pay the arrears of Treaty of Picquigny
-Pay most of Henry's expenses in Brittany
Paid a pension of £5000 a year: 5% of income.


What happened in France after the Treaty of Etaples?

England invited to join Holy League in 1496 because Ferdinand was worries that if we were excluded then we could ally with France and fight against him.
Secured a Trade agreement with France.
League of Cambrai with France and Netherlands against Spain.
In the end, Henry left isolated, but relations with France had improved.


What was Henry's policy in Scotland?

HVII wanted to avoid conflict, signed 3 year truce in 1486.
Signed a 9 year truce in 1493
Treaty of Ayton 1497 after interferences with Warbeck in Scotland, Warbeck executed in 1499.
Henry's eldest daughter married to James IV in August 1503.


What were Henry's policies in Spain

France were a common enemy.
Arthur and Catherine should marry (Medina del Campo)
Marriage of Prince Henry to Catherine.
Death of Isabella meant the end of the anti-French alliance between England, Spain and the Netherlands.


What were the conditions of the Medina del Campo

Arthur and Catherine marry
Catherine's dowry = £40,000
Spain would not help any English rebels
There would be benefits for English trade with Spain
if either country were at war with France, the other had to immediately intervene.


What were HVII's policies in Burgundy

Philip driven onto British soil:
-Earl of Suffolk handed over.
-Prince Henry to marry Philip's sister
-Henry married his daughter to Philip and Joanna's son Archduke Charles.


Trade in Foreign policy

Financial benefits
Medina del Campo
Cloth trade in Antwerp:
-Magnus intercursus
-Malus intercursus
Navigation Acts
Italy: Venice - Wine
Florence - Wool
Baltic dominated by Hanseatic league


Intercursus Magnus

Allowed English merchants to sell their goods wholesale anywhere in Philip's lands, except Flanders, without paying tolls or customs.


Intercursus Malus

Trade with Burgundy id free.
Philip not to impose any duties on the sale of English Cloth
Philip was not to exclude English Cloth from his land
Philip's subjects still had to pay the duties outlined in Magnus Intercursus.


Navigation Acts

Prohibited English traders from sending their goods on foreign ships when English ships were available.