Flashcards in Hepatitis Deck (52)
What is hepatitis? How many types are there?
Disease of the liver and there are 5 types
What are the 5 types of hepatitis virus all very resistant to? (3)
low pH, organic solvents, and detergents
What type of virus is hepatitis A?
What is the composition of the picornavirus?
ss+RNA genome, naked(un-enveloped) icosahedral capsid
What does hepatitis A cause?
Which hepatitis accounts for about 40-50% of all cases?
How many serotypes for Hepatitis A are there?
Only one HAV serotype worldwide and humans are the reservoir
Which demographic is Hepatitis A common in?
How does hepatitis A enter the body?
Enters the blood via the lining of the intestinal tract and then migrates to the liver
How long is the prodrome for Hepatitis A?
The incubation period is 15-40 days
With hepatitis A how long after prodrome until symptoms set in?
What causes the symptoms of Hepatitis A?
Symptoms are not caused by the presence on HAV in the liver but by the immunological response of the host to its presence
What are the symptoms produced in a Hepatitis A infection?
Fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, pain in the abdomen due to liver inflammation
How long does it take to recover from Hepatitis A?
99% of patients make a complete recovery within 8-12 weeks without complications
How is hepatitis A controlled?
2-Chlorination of water
3-Before present vaccine, passive immunity was obtained using immune gamma globulin
4-Very effective vaccines used in the United States are killed(formalin) virus preparations recommended for those at high risk for exposure only (MSM, travelers, IV drug users)
Hepatitis B is what type of virus?
hepadnavirus- DNA virus and is enveloped
Hepatitis B causes what?
HBV virions are also known as?
How many subtypes of HBV are there?
What is unusual about the replication process of the HBV virus?
contains partial dsDNA genome which must be replicated
Describe the replication process for HBV?
HBV enters the body via blood
Viral DNA forms complete ds circle
mRNA in capsid produces DNA using reverse transcriptase
RNA is degraded leaving partial ds DNA
How is HBV spread?
contact with bodily fluids, injection of blood, neonate infection during the birthing process
How long is the incubation period for HBV?
What are the symptoms for HBV?
jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and joint pain
What is the fatality rate for HBV?
Whatare the effects of the cell mediated immune response to HBV?
If cell mediated response is strong, disease is self limiting.
If weak chronic hepatitis ensues(leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure)
How to control/prevent HBV?
Avoid contact with blood or blood products(universal precautions), Active immunization(subunit vaccines made in yeast), Passive immunization(HBV immune globulin)
What are the characteristics of the HCV virus?
Flavivirus- enveloped, icosahedral, +ssRNA cirus
What does HCV cause?
non-A, non-B hepatitis