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Clinical Micro Final > Hepatitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hepatitis Deck (52)
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0

What is hepatitis? How many types are there?

Disease of the liver and there are 5 types

1

What are the 5 types of hepatitis virus all very resistant to? (3)

low pH, organic solvents, and detergents

2

What type of virus is hepatitis A?

Picornavirus

3

What is the composition of the picornavirus?

ss+RNA genome, naked(un-enveloped) icosahedral capsid

4

What does hepatitis A cause?

infectious hepatitis

5

Which hepatitis accounts for about 40-50% of all cases?

Hepatitis A

6

How many serotypes for Hepatitis A are there?

Only one HAV serotype worldwide and humans are the reservoir

7

Which demographic is Hepatitis A common in?

Children

8

How does hepatitis A enter the body?

Enters the blood via the lining of the intestinal tract and then migrates to the liver

9

How long is the prodrome for Hepatitis A?

The incubation period is 15-40 days

10

With hepatitis A how long after prodrome until symptoms set in?

Suddenly

11

What causes the symptoms of Hepatitis A?

Symptoms are not caused by the presence on HAV in the liver but by the immunological response of the host to its presence

12

What are the symptoms produced in a Hepatitis A infection?

Fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, pain in the abdomen due to liver inflammation

13

How long does it take to recover from Hepatitis A?

99% of patients make a complete recovery within 8-12 weeks without complications

14

How is hepatitis A controlled?

1-Proper sanitation
2-Chlorination of water
3-Before present vaccine, passive immunity was obtained using immune gamma globulin
4-Very effective vaccines used in the United States are killed(formalin) virus preparations recommended for those at high risk for exposure only (MSM, travelers, IV drug users)

15

Hepatitis B is what type of virus?

hepadnavirus- DNA virus and is enveloped

16

Hepatitis B causes what?

Serum hepatitis

17

HBV virions are also known as?

Dane particles

18

How many subtypes of HBV are there?

8

19

What is unusual about the replication process of the HBV virus?

contains partial dsDNA genome which must be replicated

20

Describe the replication process for HBV?

HBV enters the body via blood
Viral DNA forms complete ds circle
mRNA in capsid produces DNA using reverse transcriptase
RNA is degraded leaving partial ds DNA

21

How is HBV spread?

contact with bodily fluids, injection of blood, neonate infection during the birthing process

22

How long is the incubation period for HBV?

50-180 days

23

What are the symptoms for HBV?

jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and joint pain

24

What is the fatality rate for HBV?

2%

25

Whatare the effects of the cell mediated immune response to HBV?

If cell mediated response is strong, disease is self limiting.
If weak chronic hepatitis ensues(leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure)

26

How to control/prevent HBV?

Avoid contact with blood or blood products(universal precautions), Active immunization(subunit vaccines made in yeast), Passive immunization(HBV immune globulin)

27

What are the characteristics of the HCV virus?

Flavivirus- enveloped, icosahedral, +ssRNA cirus

28

What does HCV cause?

non-A, non-B hepatitis

29

What are the known reservoirs for HCV?

humans and chimpanzees