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Flashcards in Herbalism - History Deck (21)
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1

Lascaux Caves

The first pictorial evidence of herbal medicine -- radiocarbon dated between 13,000-25,000 BC.

2

3rd dynasty of Ur

3000 BC -- willow bark recorded on a stone tablet of medical remedies

3

Ebers Papyrus

ancient Egyptian medical writing dating to c. 1550 BC -- details use of many herbs and other medicinal applications, such as clay

4

Shennong Bencaojing

compilation of oral traditional knowledge that originated with Shennong, also known as the Divine Farmer, who was thought to live from 2737 BC to 2697 -- written around 220 AD

5

Sushruta Samhita

Ayurvedic text details use of over 700 medicinal plants -- 6th century BC

6

“Father of Modern Medicine”

Hippocrates – 460-377 BC; Greek physician
Vis Medicatrix Naturae was central to his philosophy

7

De Materia Medica

Pedanius Dioscorides – 40-90 AD; physician and botanist
five-volume book documenting 600 plants with medicinal uses. used by physicians until the 1600s.

8

Claudius Galen

131-200 AD
Greek physician, philosopher, scientist and prolific writer

understanding of plant energetics and actions as well as therapeutic approach

9

The Cannon of Medicine,

Ibn-Sīnā (Avicenna) - 980-1037; Persian
“Al-Qanun fi’t-Tibb” detailed use of hundreds of herbs and other natural substances.
primary medical text in Europe and Islamic world until the 18th century.

10

Viriditas

Hildegard von Bingen – 1098-1179
German abbess later given sainthood; musician, artist, visionary, herbalist, and writer

Viriditas: the green flame or greening force.

Ariditas: antonym to viriditas, the desiccating, devitalizing force.

11

“The dose makes the poison.”

Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim)– 1493-1541; German/Swiss

phenom of alchemical knowledge.

considered the father of toxicology,

Paracelsus elixir is a bitter tonic based on Aloe, Saffron, and Myrrh. Swedish Bitters is a variation of this formula.

12

the Complete Herbal

Nicholas Culpeper – 1616-1654; English
botanist, herbalist, physician, astrologer
Author of the Complete Herbal

philosophy was to make medicine accessible to the lay person, using the medicines available in nature.

13

Samuel Thompso n

(1769-1843)

Folk doctor of the “New World”

used indigenous plants of North America learned from Native Americans.

14

Physiomedicalism

Alva Curtis (1797-1881) -- Thompsonian practitioner who advocated medical training.

expanded upon and renamed the Thompsonian philosophy Physiomedicalism.

major tenant: to ensure elimination through the major organ systems -- Skin, Liver, Kidneys, Lungs and Large Intestine.

15

Wooster Beach

(1794-1868) – credited with founding the Eclectic movement.

advocated (1) use of safe botanical remedies, (2) moderation with drugs and surgery, and (3) excluding chemical poisons.


16

John Milton Scudder

(1829-1894) – organized & philosophized Eclectic movement.

emphasized doctor/patient relationship

defined holistic methods of assessment and diagnosis -- pulse, tongue, complexion and temperature, nervous tone, elimination, nutrition.

17

John King

(1813-1893)
Eclectic physician, professor, and author

18

John Uri Lloyd

(1849-1936)
Eclectic Pharmacist

Pioneered “specifics" -- concentrated extracts of botanical medicines

19

The American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy (1919)

By Finley Ellingwood (1852-1920)

Organized by organ system

20

The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics (1922)

By Harvey Wickes Felter (1865-1927)

21

King’s American Dispensatory (1898(

By Harvey Wickes Felter & John Uri Lloyd -