Flashcards in Herbert Weir Smyth, A Greek Grammar for Colleges Deck (59)
Which Greek letters were actually invented by the Greeks?
Open and close vowels
Vowels are said to be open or close according as the mouth is more open or less open in pronouncing them, the tongue and lips assuming different positions in the case of each.
The seven vowels
α, ε, η, ι, ο, υ, ω.
The original Greek word for diphthong and its literal meaning
A diphthong (δίφθογγος having two sounds)
The second vowel in a diphthong is always either
ι or υ.
With capital letters, what happens to the iota subscript?
It becomes a capital iota, as ΤΗΙ ΩΙΔΗΙ ῀ τῇ ᾠδῇ or Ὠιδῇ to the song.
List the diphthongs
αι, ει, οι, ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ; αυ, ευ, ου, ηυ, and υι.
Examples of ωυ and ηυ as diphthongs
A diphthong ωυ occurs in New Ionic (ὡυτός the same from ὁ αὐτός 68 D., ἐμωυτοῦ of myself = ἐμαυτοῦ 329 D., θωῦμα ῀ θαῦμα wonder). Ionic has ηυ for Attic αυ in some words (Hom. νηῦς ship).
Genuine vs spurious/ apparent diphthongs
Spurious diphthongs, which can be either ει, or ου, are those which are only the result of contraction.Genuine ει, ου are a combination of ε ¨ ι, ο ¨ υ, as in λείπω I leave (cp. λέλοιπα I have left, 35 a), γένει to a race (49), ἀκόλουθος follower (cp. κέλευθος way). Spurious ει, ου arise from contraction (50) or compensatory lengthening (37). Thus, ἐφίλει he loved, from ἐφίλεε, θείς placing from θεντ-ς; ἐφίλουν they loved from ἐφίλεον, πλοῦς voyage from πλόος, δούς giving from δοντ-ς.
Which two letters might a diaeresis appear over?
A double dot, the mark of diaeresis (διαίρεσις separation), may be written over ι or υ when these do not form a diphthong with the preceding vowel: προΐστημι I set before, νηΐ to a ship.
In what circumstances were vowels sometimes written apart by diaeresis?
In poetry and certain dialects. πάις (or πάϊς) boy or girl, Πηλεΐδης son of Peleus, ἐύ (or ἐΰ) well, Ἀίδης (or Ἀΐδης) Hades, γένεϊ to a race.
The other names for the rough and smooth breathings respectively
spiritus asper and spiritus lenis. Thus, ὅρος hóros boundary, ὄρος óros mountain.
Which dialect lost the rough breathing at an early date?
The Ionic of Asia Minor lost the rough breathing at an early date. So also before ρ (13). Its occurrence in compounds (124 D.) is a relic of the period when it was still sounded in the simple word. Hom. sometimes has the smooth where Attic has the rough breathing in forms that are not Attic: Ἀΐδης (Ἅ_ιδης), the god Hades, ἆλτο sprang (ἅλλομαι), ἄμυδις together (cp. ἅμα), ἠέλιος sun (ἥλιος), ἠώς dawn (ἕως), ἴ_ρηξ hawk (ἱέρα_ξ), οὖρος boundary (ὅρος). But also in ἄμαξα wagon (Attic ἅμαξα). In Laconian medial ς became ( (h): ἐνί_κα_ἑ ῀ ἐνί_κησε he conquered.
Initial υ always has the rough breathing except in which dialect?
In Aeolic, υ, like all the other vowels (and the diphthongs), always has the smooth breathing. The epic forms ὔμμες you, ὔμμι, ὔμμε (325 D.) are Aeolic.
The classical Greek alphabet originated where?
originated in Ionia, and was adopted at Athens in 403 B.C. The letters from A to T are derived from Phoenician and have Semitic names. The signs Υ to Ω were invented by the Greeks. From the Greek alphabet are derived the alphabets of most European countries. The ancients used only the large letters, called majuscules (capitals as Ε, uncials as [Eunc ]); the small letters (minuscules), which were used as a literary hand in the ninth century, are cursive forms of the uncials.
Name some differences between the Attic alphabet before and after 403 B.C.
Before 403 B.C. in the official Attic alphabet E stood for ε, η, spurious ει (6), O for ο, ω, spurious ου (6), H for the rough breathing, ΧΣ for Ξ, ΦΣ for Ψ. Λ was written for γ, and [lins ] for λ. 3. In the older period there were two other letters: (1) Ϝ: ϝαῦ, uau, called digamma (i.e. double-gamma) from its shape. It stood after ε and was pronounced like ω. ϝ was written in Boeotian as late as 200 B.C. (2) ϟ: κόππα, koppa, which stood after π. Another ς, called san, is found in the sign [sampi ], called sampi, i.e. san + pi. On these signs as numerals, see 348.
Later copyists would have omitted digammas from the Homeric texts, but list some examples of Homeric words containing ϝ
Vau was in use as a genuine sound at the time the Homeric poems were composed, though it is found in no Mss. of Homer. Many apparent irregularities of epic verse (such as hiatus, 47 D.) can be explained only by supposing that ϝ was actually sounded. Examples of words containing ϝ are: ἄστυ town, ἄναξ lord, ἁνδάνω please, εἴκω give way (cp. weak), εἴκοσι twenty (cp. viginti), ἕκαστος each, ἑκών willing, ἔλπομαι hope (cp. voluptas), ἔοικα am like, ἕο, οἷ, ἕ him, ἕξ six, ἔπος word, εἶπον said, ἔργον, ἔρδω work, ἕννυ_μι clothe, fr. ϝεσ-νυ_μι (cp. vestis), ἐρέω will say (cp. verbum), ἕσπερος evening (cp. vesper), ἴον violet (cp. viola), ἔτος year (cp. vetus), ἡδύς sweet (cp. suavis), ἰδεῖν (οἶδα) know (cp. videre, wit), ἴ_ς strength (cp. vis), ἰ_τέα willow (cp. vitis, withy), οἶκος house (cp. vicus), οἶνος wine (cp. vinum), ὅς his (123), ὄχος carriage (cp. veho, wain). Vau was lost first before ο-sounds (ὁράω see, cp. be-ware). ϝ occurred also in the middle of words: κλέϝος glory, αἰϝεί always, ὄϝις sheep (cp. ovis), κληϝίς key (Dor. κλα_ΐς, cp. clavis), ξένϝος stranger, Διϝί to Zeus, καλϝός beautiful. Cp. 20, 31, 37 D., 122, 123.
The rules on vowel length
ε and ο are always short, and take about half the time to pronounce as η and ω, which are always long; α, ι, υ are short in some syllables, long in others. In this Grammar, when α, ι, υ are not marked as long (α_, ι_, υ_) they are understood to be short. All vowels with the circumflex (149) are long. On length by position, see 144.
A diphthong _ occurs in New Ionic
A diphthong ωυ occurs in New Ionic (ὡυτός the same from ὁ αὐτός 68 D., ἐμωυτοῦ of myself = ἐμαυτοῦ 329 D., θωῦμα ῀ θαῦμα wonder).
Ionic has _ for Attic αυ in some words
Ionic has ηυ for Attic αυ in some words (Hom. νηῦς ship).
Where do diphthongs take the breathing mark?
Diphthongs take the breathing, as the accent (152), over the second vowel: αἱρέω hairéo I seize, αἴρω aíro I lift. But ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ take both the breathing and the accent on the first vowel, even when ι is written in the line (5): ᾁδω ῀ Ἄιδω I sing, ᾄδης ῀ Ἅ_ιδης Hades, but Αἰνεία_ς Aeneas. The writing ἀίδηλος (Ἀίδηλος) destroying shows that αι does not here form a diphthong; and hence is sometimes written αϊ (8).
The rough breathing is taken from words that form the second half of compound words but were those invisible rough breathings ever pronounced?
In compound words (as in προορᾶν to foresee, from πρό ¨ ὁρᾶν) the rough breathing is not written, though it must often have been pronounced: cp. ἐξέδρα_ a hall with seats, Lat. exhedra, exedra, πολυίστωρ very learned, Lat. polyhistor. On Attic inscriptions in the old alphabet (2 a) we find ΕΥΗΟΡΚΟΝ εὐὅρκον faithful to one's oath.
What percentage of initial ρs have the rough breathing?
Every initial ρ has the rough breathing: ῥήτωρ orator (Lat. rhetor). Medial ρρ is written ῤῥ in some texts: Πύῤῥος Pyrrhus.
How many consonants are there?
The seventeen consonants are commonly divided into what 5 groups?
stops (or mutes), spirants, liquids, nasals, and double consonants
Voiced vs. Voiceless consonants
Voiced (sonant, i.e. sounding) consonants are produced when the vocal chords vibrate. The sounds are represented by the letters β, δ, γ (stops), λ, ρ (liquids), μ, ν, γ-nasal (19 a) (nasals), and ζ. (All the vowels are voiced.) ρ with the rough breathing is voiceless.
b. Voiceless (surd, i.e. hushed) consonants require no exertion of the vocal chords. These are π, τ, κ, φ, θ, χ (stops), ς (spirant or sibilant), and ψ and ξ.
Why are "stops" called "stops"?
Stops (or mutes). Stopped consonants are so called because in sounding them the breath passage is for a moment completely closed.
Explain the rationale behind the three classes and the three orders of stops.
The stops are divided into three classes (according to the part of the mouth chiefly active in sounding them) and into three orders (according to the degree of force in the expiratory effort).
List the three classes and the three orders of stops.
Labial (lip sounds) π β φ
Dental (teeth sounds) τ δ θ
Palatal (palate sounds) κ γ χ
Smooth π τ κ
Middle β δ γ
Rough φ θ χ