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Flashcards in Herbivore dental Deck (68):
1

What does the term hypsodont mean?

Refers to teeth that erupt continuously throughout the majority of the animal's life

2

Which species have adult hypsodont teeth?

Horses, cows, rabbits, rodents

3

What is the term describing the natural mismatching of the maxilla and mandible in the horse?

Anisognathism

4

What is the deciduous dental formula for a horse?

2x (I 3/3 C 0/0 M 3/3) = 24 teeth

5

Is this dental formation deciduous or permanent in the horse: 2x (I 3/3 C 1/1 or 0/0 PM 3/3 or 4/4 M 3/3) = 36-44 teeth

Permanent hypsodont teeth

6

What species has a dental formula of I 2/1 C 0/0 M 3/3 = 9 teeth

Rabbit

7

What is a peg tooth, and which species has them?

The peg tooth is the 2nd maxillary incisor sitting behind the 1st in the rabbit

8

Which teeth in the horse are examined for dental ageing?

Incisors

9

What is tooth eruption?

The time at which the tooth becomes visible at the gingival margin

10

How many deciduous cheek teeth are present within a foal's first week of life?

PM 3/3

11

Which premolar might not be present?

Premolar 1 (05)

12

Which tooth is also known as the wolf tooth? What kind of tooth is this?

Premolar 1 (05)
A small brachydont tooth

13

At what age are deciduous teeth shed?

2.5 yrs

14

What is the name of the cementum-filled depression on the occlusal surgace of the tooth?

Infundibulum

15

What is the empty infundibulum called?

A cup

16

What do dental cups look like?

Dark appearance due to collected food particles

17

Once the cup is filled in, what is it called?

A dental mark

18

What cells are responsible for production of secondary dentine for replacing gradual wear of incisors?

Odontoblasts

19

Describe the role of odontoblasts in equine incisors.

As the incisors experience gradual wear, odontoblasts situated on the periphery of the pulp cavity produce secondary dentine in replacement to prevent exposure of the sensitive pulp cavity

20

What visible sign does the production of secondary dentine result in on the labial aspect of the incisors?

Dental stars

21

On which teeth are dental stars first detected?

Central incisors

22

Describe the appearance of a dental star.

Appears brown in most horses due to discolouration with food pigments; after a few year in wear a white spot appears centrally

23

Why does a white spot appear within dental stars?

Differently arranged dentine tubules produced by odontoblasts

24

How does the angle between the upper and lower incisors change with age?

In young horses, this angle is approximately 180°; once past 10yo this angle becomes progressively more acute

25

What is the name for the enamel groove seen on the corner incisor, I3?

Galvayne's groove

26

At what age is Galvayne's groove first seen?

Appears at the gingival line at approximately 11yo

27

Which jaw is wider in the horse, causing anisognathia?

Maxilla is wider than mandible

28

What is the potential effect of anisognathia?

With inadequate dental wear, this is likely to result in spurs developing on the buccal aspect of maxillary teeth, and lingual aspect of mandibular teeth

29

Why are differently shaped rasps needed for horses?

Due to the maxillary dental arcade and the Curve of Spee thus requires different rasping angles to be achieved to accommodate the normal plane of each tooth

30

What does the Curve of Spee refer to?

A dorsoventral curvature following the course of the maxillary teeth

31

Describe the shape and roots of a maxillary cheek tooth.

Square in shape
Have 2 infundibulae
Have 3 roots

32

How do mandibular and maxillary cheek teeth compare?

Maxillary teeth have 1 more root, are more square in shape and have an infundibulum whereas mandibular teeth are rectangular and have infolded enamel and only 2 roots

33

What does an tooth infundibulum look like?

Pale in appearance due to underlying cementum prior to filling with food (as a dental cup)

34

What are the features of a mandibular cheek tooth?

Overall rectangular shape
Infolding peripheral enamel instead of infundibulum
Has 2 roots

35

In rabbits, what are the reserve crowns of the maxillary arcade within close apposition to?

Infraorbital canal

36

How often are dental examinations recommended for horses?

Annually from birth, then increased to 6-monthly once older than 12yrs

37

What is the name of the numbering system used for teeth?

Triadan numbering system

38

What oral features are noted on dental records?

Condition of teeth
- any missing
- presence of calculus
- presence of gingivitis
- diastemata
- caries
- enamel points or hooks
- fractures
- mobile teeth

39

What is caries?

The decay and crumbling of tooth or bone

40

What is the symbol denoted for a fractured tooth?

#

41

What does X mean on dental records

Extracted tooth

42

What does a black box mean on dental records?

Missing tooth

43

What does P (mm) stand for?

Periodontal pocket

44

What should be done prior to examination in rabbits?

Mouth should be flushed out with dilute chlorhexidine or 0.96% saline solution for removing any food debris

45

What should examination of a rabbit incorporate?

Facial symmetry
Intermandibular space
Parotid salivary glands
Submandibular lymph nodes
Cheeks over teeth
Lateral movement of mandible

46

Why must care be taken when rasping the lower check teeth in rabbits?

Branches of the lingual artery run closely medially to these teeth

47

Why should the mouth be flushed post-procedure? What agent is recommended?

To remove remaining dental dust
Dilute chlorhexidine

48

What is the recommendation for dental care in rabbits?

Minimum of 6 monthly
Ideally every 3mo

49

What does a full dental examination entail in a rabbit?

General anaesthesia
Tracheal intubation

50

What general checks should be incorporated with a oral examination?

Assess incisors for occlusion and abnormalities
Presence of canines (horses)
Palpate diastemata
Check lips for scars or masses

51

What is another name for the diastemata?

Bars

52

Which teeth should be rasped prior to inserting the Hausmann gag?

Buccal angle of maxillary cheek teeth

53

Why should the buccal angle of the maxillary cheek teeth be rasped prior to inserting the Hausemann gag?

To prevent any sharp points from damaging the buccal mucosa when the cheeks are drawn tight against the teeth

54

What style of rasp should be used for the first 3 premolars?

A short, offset-angle rasp

55

Which teeth are rasped by a straight rasp?

Rostral molars

56

Why is a long forward-angled rasp necessary for the caudal 2 molars in horses?

To reach the caudal 2 molars, whilst accounting for the buccal curvature of the dental arcade

57

What style of rasp is needed for the caudal most molars?

A long, forward-angled rasp

58

Which teeth should be rasped prior to inserting a gag in both species, and why?

Buccal angle of the maxillary teeth should be rasped, to prevent any spurs from damaging the buccal mucosa

59

When do the deciduous incisors and premolars appear in foals?

I1 - 1wo
I2 - 4-6w0
I3 - 6-9mo
PM2,3,4 are present from birth

60

When do each of the permanent incisors erupt?

I1 - 2.5yo
I2 - 3.5yo
I3 - 4.5yo

61

When do the permanent molars emerge?

M1 - 1yo
M2 - 2yo
M3 - 3.5yo

62

At what ages do the premolars replace their deciduous counterparts?

PM2 - 2.5yo
PM3 - 3yo
PM4 - 4yo

63

When do rabbits shed their juvenile dentition?

Within a few days of birth

64

What is the common problem associated with rabbit diets?

Inappropriate diet or occlusion typically results in tooth elongation over time -> this places pressure on the alveolar nerve thus causing pain

65

At what age do dental stars begin appearing on equine incisors?

I1 - 5yo
I2 - 6yo
I3 - 7yo

66

When do white spots appear on adult horse incisors?

I3 - 8yo
I2 - 9yo
I3 - 9-15yo

67

What are the age categories for dental cups of the incisors disappearing?

I1 - 6-7yo
I2 - 7-11yo
I3 - 9-15yo

68

Subsequently, when do equine dental marks disappear?

I1 - 15yo
I2 - 16yo
I3 - 17yo