Rectal examination Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rectal examination Deck (65):
1

In what species is rectal examination performed?

Mare and cow

2

What are the reasons for performing a rectal exam?

Examine reproductive tract
Diagnose pregnancy - determine stage of gestation
Examine gastro-intestinal tract

3

What requirements does this procedure need?

Holding stocks
Sedation
Restraint of animal
Protective rectal sleeve
Lubrication

4

What are the major differences between the mare and the cow with rectal exams?

Mare - BEWARE of rectal tearing
faeces must be removed
NEVER push against contractions - withdraw hand
Cow - rectal tears only likely in young animals
can work around small amount of faeces
have to evacuate large volume of faeces
wait for contractions to pass before proceeding

5

What considerations must be made when rectalling a mare?

Greater likelihood of rectal tearing
Faeces have to be evacuated beforehand
Must never push against contractions - withdraw hand before attempting again

6

When would a rectal examination for PD carried out in cattle?

Generally between 35-65 post-mating/AI

7

What considerations have to be made when examining cattle?

Rectal tears are far less likely - only in younger animals
Can palpate around small volumes of faeces
Evacuate larger quantities of faeces
If contractions occurs, have to wait before proceeding

8

What anatomical features should be palpable?

Cervix
Uterine bifurcation
Uterine horns
Uterine artery in cows
Broad ligament
Ovaries

9

What should the cervix be palpated for?

Its tone

10

In cows what structures should be palpable in association with the uterine bifurcation?

Ventral/dorsal inter-corneal ligaments

11

What has the potential to be palpated along the uterine horns?

Tone
Fluid content
Cotyledons in cows
Ballotting/feeling calves

12

When palpating the uterine artery, what should you be able to feel?

Its diameter
Fremitus/thrill

13

What structure should be palpable in association with the uterus?

Broad ligament

14

What is the role of the broad ligament?

Connects the uterus to pelvic walls and floor

15

What is the broad ligament?

A wide fold of peritoneum

16

What should be detectable from palpating the ovaries?

Shape
Size
Presence of follicles/CL

17

What should be done before rectally examining a mare?

Apply tail bandage
Move tail to one side
Evacuate faeces

18

What shape should your hand adopt when inserting into external anal sphincter?

A cone shape

19

What external structure has to be traversed in order to access rectum?

External anal sphincter

20

What should you do if there is a peristaltic contraction in the mare?

Withdraw hand with contraction
Wait for relaxation to occur
Insert hand again

21

What must you NEVER do when rectalling a mare?

Never push against a contraction or permit it to pass over your hand - withdraw it and wait for her to relax

22

In order to palpate the cervix, what is the best procedure in the mare?

Slowly insert arm up to shoulder, then withdraw about halfway

23

Why should you withdraw your arm when rectalling a mare?

This helps the mare to relax and reduces the likelihood of her straining excessively

24

Where should you be able to detect the cervix in the mare?

Should be lying midline on the pelvic floor

25

How should a non-pregnant mare's cervix feel?

Soft to the touch and with minimal tone

26

How do the uterine horns lie in relation to the cervix of the mare?

They pass dorsally to either side

27

What should the texture of the uterine horns be?

Quite flaccid to palpate

28

What is the best technique for palpating the reproductive tract of the mare?

Palpate cervix
Follow cervix to uterine bifurcation, then continue up 1 horn
Then retreat to bifurcation to continue up other horn

29

What two signs could be indicative of early pregnancy in the mare?

Increased uterine tone
Slight enlargement of one uterine horn

30

What shape are equine ovaries?

Kidney-shaped

31

Where are the ovaries located in the mare?

At the end of each uterine horn, against the broad ligament

32

What should be done before performing a rectal examination in a cow?

Move tail to one side
Evacuate faeces if present in a large amount

33

What should you do if the cow has a peristaltic contraction against your arm?

Stop advancing your arm
Wait for contraction to pass over your hand/arm

34

What should you do if examining a young cow or heifer with a peristaltic contraction? Why?

Should withdraw your hand/arm with contraction
Wait for relaxation then re-insert

35

How should you go about palpating the bovine cervix?

With arm about halfway in, perform a pelvic sweep to locate cervix

36

Where should the cervix be located in a cow?

Should be midline on pelvic floor

37

What is the texture of the cervix in a cow?

It should have a meaty feel to it

38

Whereabouts is the uterus located within pelvic cavity?

Uterus often hangs over brim of pelvis, deep within abdomen

39

What can be done to make examination of the bovine uterus easier?

Withdrawing the uterus caudally into the pelvis

40

How should you examine a cow's uterus?

Gently grasp cervix, pulling it dorsally and caudally
This should introduce the uterine bifurcation into the pelvis

41

What structure is palpable between the uterine bifurcation in a cow?

Dorsal and ventral inter-cornual ligament

42

Which of the inter-cornual ligaments is most fragile, therefore should not be drawn on to displace uterine horns?

Dorsal inter-cornual ligament

43

Which inter-cornual ligament should be used to withdraw uterus into pelvis?

Ventral inter-cornual ligament

44

How should non-pregnant uterine horns feel when palpated?

Tone should be fairly firm
Horns should be equal in size

45

What shape are cow ovaries descried as?

Rounded

46

Which direction do the uterine horns curve in a cow?

Ventrally

47

What should be checked when palpating a bovine ovary?

Texture of its surface - follicles/CL
Estimation of its size

48

If ovaries are unusually large, what might this be due to?

Cystic ovaries

49

What should ovarian follicles feel like when palpated?

Fluid-filled blisters that slightly protrude from surface of ovary

50

How does the texture of a CL compare to that of a follicle?

CL is a much harder protrusion from the ovarian surface

51

How is PD performed in cattle?

Palpating uterine horns

52

What should be avoided when performing a PD on a cow? Why?

Do not palpate ovaries or aggressively manipulate organs - this may result in abortion

53

At what gestation period is the pregnant horn bouncy and thin-walled to the touch; its diameter at 2 inches; and the non-pregnant horn lacks bounce and remains thick-walled in a cow?

6 weeks

54

What is the palpable difference between 6 and 7 weeks pregnancy in a cow?

The pregnant horn has increased in diameter from 2 to 3 inches

55

How would the uterine horns be described at 7 weeks pregnancy in a cow?

Pregnant horn - bouncy and thin walled
Non-pregnant horn - lacks bounce and thick walled
Diameter - 3 inches

56

By 8 weeks pregnancy, what should be palpable in the cow?

Both horns - bouncy and thin walled
Diameter - both 3 inches

57

At what point in cattle pregnancy is there bounce in both uterine horns, no cotyledons, a ballotable calf, and a pregnant horn sized at half a small football

9 weeks pregnancy

58

What palpable features determine pregnancy at 10 weeks in a cow?

Bounce in both uterine horns
Calf can be balloted
No cotyledons are palpable
Pregnant horn has reached size of grapefruit

59

How does pregnancy at 10 weeks differ from that of 11 weeks?

Pregnant horn has increased from grapefruit to football size
Small cotyledons are palpable
Calf can be felt rather than ballotted

60

Describe palpable findings at 11 weeks gestation.

Bounce detectable in both horns
Pregnant horn reached size of football
Small cotyledons are palpable
Calf can be felt rather than ballotted

61

What size are the cotyledons at 5mo?

30mm

62

How is the uterine artery described at 5 months pregnancy?

7-9mm in diameter
Thrill detectable

63

When cotyledons have reached 25mm in size, what point is this is pregnancy?

4 months

64

What can be detected at 3 months pregnancy?

Cotyledons have reached 20mm in size
Uterine artery is very small and a pulse is detectable

65

At 4 months pregnancy, how does the uterine artery feel?

2-3mm in diameter
Detectable thrill