Flashcards in Ligation/neutering Deck (34):
What is the technically name for the process of neutering of male animals?
What does an ovarioectomy or ovariohysterectomy refer to?
Neutering of female animals
What are the advantages of performing a flank cat spay?
Fast procedure - limits duration of anaesthesia
Short convalescence period
What are the potential disadvantages of a flank spay in a cat?
If there any surgical problems, then the incision must be closed and procedure converted to midline access
What are the two kinds of spay possible in a cat?
Ventral midline spay
What is the benefit associated with ventral midline access in a cat spay?
Achieves full access to abdomen therefore making it far more straightforward to deal with complications
What is the disadvantage of performing a midline cat spay?
Procedure is slightly slower - increases anaesthesia duration
Longer convalescence period
What are the relevant features of anatomy to consider when performing a spay?
2x uterine bodies
1x uterine horn
How many ligaments attach the two ovaries to the dorsal body wall? What are they?
2 ligaments: suspensory
What other anatomy has to be considered within the peritoneal cavity?
What anatomical features should be easily identifiable via a ventral midline incision?
How should the uterus be accessed?
By displacing bladder caudally, and small intestine cranially
How does the uterus sit?
Ventral to colon and dorsal to bladder
Which surgical instrument should be avoided when locating uterine horns and why?
DON'T use tissue forceps - these are likely to puncture hollow abdominal organs
What organ should be exteriorised first?
Which technique is used for ligating ovarian/suspensory ligaments?
3 clamp technique
What must be done following incision of ligament?
Firmly grip ovarian pedicle using tissue forceps, release bottom lamp to check ligature is sufficiently tight before releasing it into abdominal cavity
What happens following excision of ovarian/suspensory ligaments?
Uterine horns are pulled caudally to expose cervix
How many clamps are used for ligating cervix?
What is the preferable method for ligating cervix?
Following ligation of cervix, what checks should be performed?
Check that both ovaries have been removed in their entirety
Check that cervical stump is sufficiently ligatured
What is the main difficulty to negotiate with the flank spay approach?
Technique does not permit good visibility of the anatomy
Where should L uterine horn be in relation to incision?
Horn should lie immediately below lateral abdominal wall incision
What problem must be taken into consideration when performing a flank cat spay?
If you lose hold of the severed ovarian pedicle before you've checked for bleeding, you'll have to close flank incision and perform a ventral midline incision to correct the problem
How many kinds of ligatures are there? What are these?
Circumferential; Halstead transfixed; Modified transfixed
Describe a circumferential ligature.
1/2 simple interrupted ligatures tied around a vessel
Requires a sufficient pedicle to prevent ligature from rolling off end
How can a circumferential ligature be made more secure?
Performing ligation within a groove created by artery forceps = 3 clamp technique
What is the name of the ligating procedure that makes use of artery forceps
3 clamp (circumferential) technique
How is a Halstead transfixed ligature executed?
Vessel wall is pierced by suture material, ends crossed over and securing throws made around opposite side of vessel
What feature does a Halstead transfixed ligature lack?
No initial securing throws
What is the benefit of using a Halstead transfixion ligament?
More secure than a circumferential ligature
What is the drawback of using Halstead transfixed ligatures?
Can only be used with fine suture material
Describe method of Modified transfixed ligament.
Suture material is threaded through vessel wall, initial throws performed external to vessel, then material looped around and further securing throws added