Ligation/neutering Flashcards Preview

Clinical Skills > Ligation/neutering > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ligation/neutering Deck (34):
1

What is the technically name for the process of neutering of male animals?

Orchidectomy

2

What does an ovarioectomy or ovariohysterectomy refer to?

Neutering of female animals

3

What are the advantages of performing a flank cat spay?

Fast procedure - limits duration of anaesthesia
Short convalescence period

4

What are the potential disadvantages of a flank spay in a cat?

If there any surgical problems, then the incision must be closed and procedure converted to midline access

5

What are the two kinds of spay possible in a cat?

Flank spay
Ventral midline spay

6

What is the benefit associated with ventral midline access in a cat spay?

Achieves full access to abdomen therefore making it far more straightforward to deal with complications

7

What is the disadvantage of performing a midline cat spay?

Procedure is slightly slower - increases anaesthesia duration
Longer convalescence period

8

What are the relevant features of anatomy to consider when performing a spay?

Uterus
2x ovaries
2x uterine bodies
1x uterine horn
1x cervix

9

How many ligaments attach the two ovaries to the dorsal body wall? What are they?

2 ligaments: suspensory
ovarian

10

What other anatomy has to be considered within the peritoneal cavity?

Bladder
Small intestine
Colon

11

What anatomical features should be easily identifiable via a ventral midline incision?

Small intestine
Bladder
Colon

12

How should the uterus be accessed?

By displacing bladder caudally, and small intestine cranially

13

How does the uterus sit?

Ventral to colon and dorsal to bladder

14

Which surgical instrument should be avoided when locating uterine horns and why?

DON'T use tissue forceps - these are likely to puncture hollow abdominal organs

15

What organ should be exteriorised first?

First ovary

16

Which technique is used for ligating ovarian/suspensory ligaments?

3 clamp technique

17

What must be done following incision of ligament?

Firmly grip ovarian pedicle using tissue forceps, release bottom lamp to check ligature is sufficiently tight before releasing it into abdominal cavity

18

What happens following excision of ovarian/suspensory ligaments?

Uterine horns are pulled caudally to expose cervix

19

How many clamps are used for ligating cervix?

2

20

What is the preferable method for ligating cervix?

Transfixion ligature

21

Following ligation of cervix, what checks should be performed?

Check that both ovaries have been removed in their entirety
Check that cervical stump is sufficiently ligatured

22

What is the main difficulty to negotiate with the flank spay approach?

Technique does not permit good visibility of the anatomy

23

Where should L uterine horn be in relation to incision?

Horn should lie immediately below lateral abdominal wall incision

24

What problem must be taken into consideration when performing a flank cat spay?

If you lose hold of the severed ovarian pedicle before you've checked for bleeding, you'll have to close flank incision and perform a ventral midline incision to correct the problem

25

How many kinds of ligatures are there? What are these?

3
Circumferential; Halstead transfixed; Modified transfixed

26

Describe a circumferential ligature.

1/2 simple interrupted ligatures tied around a vessel
Requires a sufficient pedicle to prevent ligature from rolling off end

27

How can a circumferential ligature be made more secure?

Performing ligation within a groove created by artery forceps = 3 clamp technique

28

What is the name of the ligating procedure that makes use of artery forceps

3 clamp (circumferential) technique

29

How is a Halstead transfixed ligature executed?

Vessel wall is pierced by suture material, ends crossed over and securing throws made around opposite side of vessel

30

What feature does a Halstead transfixed ligature lack?

No initial securing throws

31

What is the benefit of using a Halstead transfixion ligament?

More secure than a circumferential ligature

32

What is the drawback of using Halstead transfixed ligatures?

Can only be used with fine suture material

33

Describe method of Modified transfixed ligament.

Suture material is threaded through vessel wall, initial throws performed external to vessel, then material looped around and further securing throws added

34

What advantage does Modified transfixed ligament have to offer?

Permits use of thicker suture material for ligation