Highison: Digestive Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Highison: Digestive Glands Deck (70)
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1

These cells produce, store, and release digestive enzymes

pancreatic acinar cells

2

Pancreatic acinar cells also produce this to protect the cell from intracellular activation of trypsin

trypsin inhibitor

3

What two things affect the release of enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells?

hormones
parasympathetic innervation

4

Two cell types of the exocrine pancreas

pancreatic acinar cells
centroacinar cells

5

These cells are modified intercalated duct cells

centroacinar cells

6

Where are centroacinar cells located?

within the acinus

7

What do centroacinar cells produce? What does this do?

bicarbonate-rich buffer, which adjusts the acidic chyme to optimal pH for major pancreatic enzymes

8

Are striated ducts and myoepithelial cells located in the exocrine pancreas?

No

9

These are scattered among the exocrine secretory acini

islets of Langerhans

10

3 principle cell types in the pancreatic islets and what does each produce

1. alpha cells (glucagon)
2. beta cells (insulin)
3. delta cells (somatostatin)

11

Where are alpha cells located? What do they release? What is their function?

in the periphery of the islets
glucagon
increase blood sugar

12

Where are beta cells located? What do they release? What is their function?

concentrated in central region of islets, but scattered throughout
insulin
decrease blood sugar

13

Are there more alpha cells or beta cells in the pancreas?

beta

14

Within the pancreatic acinar cell, inactive proenzymes are synthesized in the (blank) of the pancreatic acinar cells and transferred to the (blank) where they are concentrated in vesicles to form (blank).

Rough ER; golgi apparatus; zymogen granules

15

Each zymogen granule contains several (blank)

pancreatic enzymes

16

Secretion of pancreatic enzymes is controlled by enteroendocrine cells present in the (blank) and also by hormones synthesized in the (blank)

duodenum; islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreas)

17

Each islet of Langerhans is supplied by afferent arterioles forming a network of capillaries called the (blank).

insuloacinar portal system

18

What is the independent arterial system called that supplies the pancreatic acini?

acinar vascular system

19

What prevents the leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the intercellular space?

apical tight junctions

20

What is the purpose of the insuloacinar portal system?

Enables hormones produced in the islets to have a local action on the exocrine pancreas

21

Is the liver an endocrine or exocrine organ?

Both

22

The liver has very little of this

connective tissue

23

The liver is made up of plates of these

hepatocytes

24

There are two blood supplies to the liver. What supplies 25% of the blood flow? What supplies 75% of the blood flow?

hepatic arteries; portal vein

25

How does blood leave the liver?

hepatic veins

26

What flows countercurrent to blood flow in the liver?

Bile and lymph

27

What are the hexagon-shaped portions of hepatocytes called?

classic lobules

28

What is the area called where three classic lobules join each other

portal area

29

What four things are found in the portal area?

1. hepatic artery
2. portal vein
3. interlobular bile duct
4. lymphatic vessels

30

How does blood flow leave the lobules of the hepatocyte?

Each lobule has a central vein that drains blood from every sinusoid of that lobuleq