Flashcards in Highison: Digestive Glands Deck (70)
These cells produce, store, and release digestive enzymes
pancreatic acinar cells
Pancreatic acinar cells also produce this to protect the cell from intracellular activation of trypsin
What two things affect the release of enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells?
Two cell types of the exocrine pancreas
pancreatic acinar cells
These cells are modified intercalated duct cells
Where are centroacinar cells located?
within the acinus
What do centroacinar cells produce? What does this do?
bicarbonate-rich buffer, which adjusts the acidic chyme to optimal pH for major pancreatic enzymes
Are striated ducts and myoepithelial cells located in the exocrine pancreas?
These are scattered among the exocrine secretory acini
islets of Langerhans
3 principle cell types in the pancreatic islets and what does each produce
1. alpha cells (glucagon)
2. beta cells (insulin)
3. delta cells (somatostatin)
Where are alpha cells located? What do they release? What is their function?
in the periphery of the islets
increase blood sugar
Where are beta cells located? What do they release? What is their function?
concentrated in central region of islets, but scattered throughout
decrease blood sugar
Are there more alpha cells or beta cells in the pancreas?
Within the pancreatic acinar cell, inactive proenzymes are synthesized in the (blank) of the pancreatic acinar cells and transferred to the (blank) where they are concentrated in vesicles to form (blank).
Rough ER; golgi apparatus; zymogen granules
Each zymogen granule contains several (blank)
Secretion of pancreatic enzymes is controlled by enteroendocrine cells present in the (blank) and also by hormones synthesized in the (blank)
duodenum; islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreas)
Each islet of Langerhans is supplied by afferent arterioles forming a network of capillaries called the (blank).
insuloacinar portal system
What is the independent arterial system called that supplies the pancreatic acini?
acinar vascular system
What prevents the leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the intercellular space?
apical tight junctions
What is the purpose of the insuloacinar portal system?
Enables hormones produced in the islets to have a local action on the exocrine pancreas
Is the liver an endocrine or exocrine organ?
The liver has very little of this
The liver is made up of plates of these
There are two blood supplies to the liver. What supplies 25% of the blood flow? What supplies 75% of the blood flow?
hepatic arteries; portal vein
How does blood leave the liver?
What flows countercurrent to blood flow in the liver?
Bile and lymph
What are the hexagon-shaped portions of hepatocytes called?
What is the area called where three classic lobules join each other
What four things are found in the portal area?
1. hepatic artery
2. portal vein
3. interlobular bile duct
4. lymphatic vessels