Insulin and Glucagon Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Insulin and Glucagon Deck (64)
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1

Autoimmune destruction of Beta cells

Type I diabetes

2

Beta cell exhaustion; compensation for insulin resistance

Type II diabetes

3

Which form of diabetes causes no insulin?

Type 1

4

Which form of diabetes causes not enough insulin?

Type 2

5

Diabetic complications

Heart disease and stroke
High blood pressure
Blindness
Kidney disease
Nervous system disease
Amputation

6

The pancreas is composed of these two things

acini
islets of Langerhans

7

Islets of Langerhans secrete these two things into the blood

insulin
glucagon

8

What do alpha cells secrete?

glucagon

9

What do beta cells secrete?

insulin and amylin

10

What do gamma cells secrete?

somatostatin

11

Glucose homeostasis keeps blood glucose at what level?

5.5mM

12

Is insulin anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypoglycemic?

Anti-hyperglycemic

13

What does somatostatin do for insulin and glucagon levels?

It is a tonic modulator, which means it keeps insulin and glucose levels within normal ranges

14

Proinsulin forms insulin and what other product?

C peptide

15

What can be used to measure insulin levels, because it doesn't degrade as fast? It is secreted 1:1 with molecules of insulin.

C peptide

16

What test is administered to measure how glucose changes in blood over time?

oral glucose tolerance test

17

If blood glucose levels remain high, what occurs?

Glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for uptake, so you will pee out glucose

18

Does a meal always decrease glucagon secretion?

No

19

Compare the effect of a meal on glucagon vs insulin secretion.

After a meal, the change in glucagon levels are very minimal. However, changes in insulin levels are more drastic

20

Somatostatin acts as a (blank) and limits how much insulin and glucagon is secreted.

tonic inhibitor

21

During overnight fasting or between meals, what happens to lipolysis and lipogenesis?

lipolysis is stimulated; lipogenesis is inhibited

22

During overnight fasting or between meals, what happens to glucose storage in the liver (glycogen synthesis)?

It is inhibited

23

Does glucagon have an effect on peripheral tissues (muscle and adipocytes)?

No!

24

Fat cells do not have these receptors

glucagon receptors

25

Low insulin favors what and inhibits what?

Favors glycenolysis and inhibits glycogen synthesis.

26

During overnight fasting or between meals, resting glucose transport is decreased (blank)-fold relative to the fed state.

3-4 fold

27

Low (blank) favors breakdown of glucose stores and inhibits formation of glucose stores in (blank).

insulin; muscle

28

What can stimulate glucose transport to muscles when not in the "fed" state?

Exercise

29

Very low levels of insulin are sufficient to inhibit breakdown of (blank)

fat

30

Glucose transport into adipocytes is (blank)

VERY LOW