Flashcards in SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS Deck (31)
In classical galactosemia, UDP-galactose cannot be generated from galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. So, what enzyme must be used to generate UDP galactose?
UDP-galactose-4 epimerase (epimierization of UDP-glucose)
Glycogen phosphorylase makes what, which is later converted to G6P?
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase makes what?
Can glycogen branching enzyme make alpha1,6 glycosidic bonds?
Can glycogen synthase make alpha1,6 glycosidic bonds?
NO; glycogen synthase can only make alpha1,4 glycosidic bonds
Jaundice and red brown urine can be a symptom of a deficiency in this enzyme
G6PDH; The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme takes NADP+ to NADPH. Recall that NADPH is necessary to reduce glutathione in RBCs to protect them from the oxidizing environment.
The "release" of any glucose from the liver is dependent on this enzyme
G6Pase (takes G6P to free glucose)
During an overnight fast, what enzyme in the liver is INACTIVATED by phosphorylation?
It is typical for alcoholics to be deficient in this nutrient.
Vitamin B1; thiamin
Via what type of chemical reaction do we extract most of our energy from macronutrients?
oxidation of carbon
Inhibitors of KATP channels in pancreatic beta cells, stimulate insulin secretion from already failing beta cells. Can be a problem for patients concerned that their prediabetes may progress to Type II.
How is acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulated?
What is the dominant GLUT transporter present in the placenta?
What is the predominant GLUT transporter present in the muscle? What is unique about this transporter?
GLUT 4; it is insulin dependent
What is the predominant GLUT transporter found in pancreatic alpha cells? Beta cells?
GLUT 1; GLUT 2
Cholesterol is formed from the isoprenoid pathway. What are some other products formed from this pathway?
Cholestyramine causes higher amounts of bile salts to be excreted via what type of interaction?
If you wanted to remove the left/descending colon, which two vessels would you ligate?
marginal artery at the splenic flexure, left colic artery
Over which part of the duodenum do the superior mesenteric vessels cross?
What portion of the intestines does the IMA supply blood to?
Which renal artery is longer?
Right renal artery
The left renal vein gets trapped beneath this branch of the aorta.
Is the adrenal gland encased in renal fascia like the kidney?
Which way do the lumbar splanchnics run in relation to the sympathetic trunk?
How do postsynaptic fibers from the celiac ganglion mostly distribute?
mainly with the blood vessels
Structures that penetrate or pass directly behind the diaphragm.
IVC, aorta, esophagus, vagus nerves, thoracic duct, thoracic splanchnics, sympathetic trunk
3 arteries supplying the adrenal gland
superior suprarenal from the inferior phrenic
middle suprarenal from the aorta
inferior suprarenal from the renal artery
The ascending colon, duodenum, and pancreas are all considered...
Problems associated with gastroparesis
decreased quality of life, bezoar formation, dehydration, malnutrition