Highison: Small and Large Intestine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Highison: Small and Large Intestine Deck (52)
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1

Layers of the small intestine

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa (inner circular outer longitudinal)
serosa
adventitia

2

How long is the small intestine?

21-25 ft

3

Principle site of digestion of food and absorption of products of digestion

small intestine

4

3 "gross" aspects of the small intestine

mesentery
plicae circulares
vasa recta

5

Surface modifications increase the surface area of the small intestine by 400-600 times! What are three modifications that account for this increase?

1. plicae circulares (2-3x)
2. intestinal villi (10x)
3. microvilli (20x)

6

Projections/folds of the mucosa of the small intestine into the lumen. Increase absorptive surface of the mucosa.

villi

7

Found in the lamina propria of the small intestine

crypts of Lieberkuhn

8

permanent spiral folds of mucosa and submucosa in distal duodenum, jejunum, and proximal ileum

plicae circulares

9

What kind of epithelium is the mucosa of the small intestine?

simple columnar

10

Surface absorptive cells, specialized for transport of substances from intestinal lumen into circulatory system

enterocytes

11

Enterocytes of the mucosa of the small intestine have (blank) to increase apical surface area, and (blank) to seal off the intercellular space from the intestinal lumen

microvilli; intercellular junctions

12

Six cell types found in the mucosa of the small intestine

1. surface absorptive cells (enterocytes)
2. goblet cells
3. M cells
4. enteroendocrine cells
5. Paneth cells
6. stem cells

13

These cells secrete mucinogen that is converted to mucous for protection

goblet cells

14

These are antigen presenting cells, modified enterocytes. They cover lymphatic nodules in the lamina propria.

M cells

15

These cells produce nearly all the same peptide hormones that they do in the stomach

enteroendocrine cells

16

These cells secrete lysozyme and regulate normal intestinal flora

Paneth cells

17

Where are Paneth cells primarily found?

in the distal ileum

18

These are regenerative cells that restore the epithelial cells every 5-6 days and the Paneth cells every 4 weeks

stem cells

19

What do antimitotic drugs do for the small intestine?

create a higher rate of cell renewal

20

Occupies the villi and in between the intestinal glands (Crypts of Lieberkuhn)

lamina propria

21

What things are found in the lamina propria?

CT
lymphoid tissue
villus lacteals
lymphoid nodules
intestinal glands or crypts of Lieberkuhn

22

What are the lymphoid nodules of the ileum known as?

Peyer's patches

23

Submucosal glands (Brunner's glands) are found only in the (blank)

duodenum

24

These glands are unique to the submucosa of the duodenum and produce alkaline mucin to neutralize HCl, and produce urogastrone that inhibits gastric HCl production.

Brunner's glands

25

Two things that Brunner's glands of the duodenum produce

alkaline mucin
urogastrone

26

Two layers of the muscularis externa of the lamina propria of the small intestine

inner circular, outer longitudinal

27

The most superficial layer of the small intestine is either (blank) or (blank)

serosa; adventitia

28

Principle functions of the large intestine

reabsorption of electrolytes and water
elimination of waste

29

Parts of the large intestine

cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal

30

Large intestine does NOT have these two things

mucosal folds
villi