Flashcards in Ward: Small and Large Intestine II Deck (79)
Three features of the small intestine that increase surface area
circular concentric Kirkring folds (3x)
microvilli on villi (600x)
The (blank) on the microvilli surface of enterocytes is the location of numerous enzymes that provide the final stages of protein and carb breakdown for absorption.
The presence of enzymes on the microvilli surface ensures that the final stages of (blank) occur at the same point where contents are (blank)
intestinal content breakdown
Presence of the enzymes on microvilli reduce the possibility of (blank)
Each villi of the small intestine receives (blank) and has blind ended (blank) from the lymphatic system
blood supply; lacteals
This layer contracts and relaxes in the small intestine
Blood and lymphatic supply to the villi ensure optimal removal of absorbed (blank)
peptides, AAs, sugars, fats
To ensure maximal absorption to the small intestine, it undergoes (blank) to ensure proper mixing of the lumenal contents
3 major sources of carbohydrates
other carbohydrates (amylose, glycogen...)
Contributes to 3-5% of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates
In the stomach, hydrolysis continues for up to 1 hour and results in what percentage of starches being hydrolyzed to maltose?
This enzyme is released following neutralization of chyme that enters the proximal duodenum (by bicarbonate secretion). Pancreatic secretion of (blank) continues the digestion of carbohydrates, producing maltose, maltotriose and a-limited dextrins
Digestion of starch and other disacchs are further broken down by enzymes located at the (blank) of the membrane
Final breakdown of carbs: Enzymes located near the (blank) mechanism, so free glucose goes into the enterocyte and does not cause (blank)
transport; osmotic diahrrea
Enzymes on the brush border of the enterocytes are continually (blank)
Enzymes found in brush border
(blank) dependent carrier system takes glucose and galactose from the brush border into the cell
Glucose and Galactose are absorbed by secondary active transport via a (blank) dependent carrier system
Lactose intolerance exists due to a lack of membrane bound enzymes resulting in malabsorption of (blank)
Undigested lactose causes (blank) changes. (blank) is further increased by the production of lactic acid by intestinal bacteria acting on the lactose.
So, essentially, lactose intolerance is a (blank) deficiency. It is popular in (blank) populations.
Upon admin of lactose, a flat lactose tolerance curve or failure of blood glucose to rise indicates low (blank) activity
These form an important addition to the bulkiness of stool and reduce the transit time of feces
Almost all proteins require (blank) before (blank). There is one exception.
newborns with gamma globulins from milk
A second source of protein is derived from the (blank) that is continually sleuthed off into the lumen. This accounts for (blank) percent of dietary protein.
intestinal mucosa; 50%
A third source of protein are the many (blank) that are secreted into the GI tract
T/F: Different classes of AAs are absorbed best at different concentrations
At the final stage of digestion of proteins, the (blank) co-transporter ultimately takes amino acids into the enterocyte and then into the bloodstream
Enterokinase, located on the brush border of duodenal enterocytes, is activated by the presence of (blank)