Ward: Small and Large Intestine II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ward: Small and Large Intestine II Deck (79)
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1

Three features of the small intestine that increase surface area

circular concentric Kirkring folds (3x)
villi (30x)
microvilli on villi (600x)

2

The (blank) on the microvilli surface of enterocytes is the location of numerous enzymes that provide the final stages of protein and carb breakdown for absorption.

glycocaylax

3

The presence of enzymes on the microvilli surface ensures that the final stages of (blank) occur at the same point where contents are (blank)

intestinal content breakdown
absorbed

4

Presence of the enzymes on microvilli reduce the possibility of (blank)

osmotic diarrhea

5

Each villi of the small intestine receives (blank) and has blind ended (blank) from the lymphatic system

blood supply; lacteals

6

This layer contracts and relaxes in the small intestine

muscularis externa

7

Blood and lymphatic supply to the villi ensure optimal removal of absorbed (blank)

peptides, AAs, sugars, fats

8

To ensure maximal absorption to the small intestine, it undergoes (blank) to ensure proper mixing of the lumenal contents

segmentation

9

3 major sources of carbohydrates

disaccharides
polysaccharides
other carbohydrates (amylose, glycogen...)

10

Contributes to 3-5% of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates

oral amylase

11

In the stomach, hydrolysis continues for up to 1 hour and results in what percentage of starches being hydrolyzed to maltose?

30-40%

12

This enzyme is released following neutralization of chyme that enters the proximal duodenum (by bicarbonate secretion). Pancreatic secretion of (blank) continues the digestion of carbohydrates, producing maltose, maltotriose and a-limited dextrins

amylase

13

Digestion of starch and other disacchs are further broken down by enzymes located at the (blank) of the membrane

brush border

14

Final breakdown of carbs: Enzymes located near the (blank) mechanism, so free glucose goes into the enterocyte and does not cause (blank)

transport; osmotic diahrrea

15

Enzymes on the brush border of the enterocytes are continually (blank)

synthesized

16

Enzymes found in brush border

lactase
sucrase
maltase
a-dextrinase

17

(blank) dependent carrier system takes glucose and galactose from the brush border into the cell

Na+

18

Glucose and Galactose are absorbed by secondary active transport via a (blank) dependent carrier system

Na+

19

Lactose intolerance exists due to a lack of membrane bound enzymes resulting in malabsorption of (blank)

carbohydrates

20

Undigested lactose causes (blank) changes. (blank) is further increased by the production of lactic acid by intestinal bacteria acting on the lactose.

osmolality; osmolality

21

So, essentially, lactose intolerance is a (blank) deficiency. It is popular in (blank) populations.

enzymatic; Asian

22

Upon admin of lactose, a flat lactose tolerance curve or failure of blood glucose to rise indicates low (blank) activity

lactase

23

These form an important addition to the bulkiness of stool and reduce the transit time of feces

dietary fibers

24

Almost all proteins require (blank) before (blank). There is one exception.

digestion; absorption
newborns with gamma globulins from milk

25

A second source of protein is derived from the (blank) that is continually sleuthed off into the lumen. This accounts for (blank) percent of dietary protein.

intestinal mucosa; 50%

26

A third source of protein are the many (blank) that are secreted into the GI tract

enzymes

27

T/F: Different classes of AAs are absorbed best at different concentrations

True

28

At the final stage of digestion of proteins, the (blank) co-transporter ultimately takes amino acids into the enterocyte and then into the bloodstream

Na+/glucose

29

Enterokinase, located on the brush border of duodenal enterocytes, is activated by the presence of (blank)

trypsinogen

30

The absorption of amino acids is coupled to the transport of (blank) similar to that described for the absorption of monosaccharides.

Na+