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Histology Sem 3 > Histo Pulm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histo Pulm Deck (85):
1

Where is air filtered when entering the body?

Nasal Cavities

2

Parts of the air condution system

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree

3

Responsible for the sense of smell

Olfactory mucosa

4

3 regions of nasal cavities

Vestibule, respiratory segment, Olfactory segment

5

Cell type of vestibule

Stratified squamous epithelium (continuous with the skin of the face)

6

Traps dust particle in the nasal cavity

Vibrissae

7

Function of the respiratory segment

Warm, moisten, filter inspired air

8

2 layers of the repiratory segment

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and lamina propria

9

5 cell types of ciliated seudostratified columnar epithelium

Ciliated cells, goblet cells, basal cells, brush cells, small granule cells

10

Appearance of cilited cells

Tall columnar cells with motile cilia

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Cells that synthesize and secrete mucus

Goblet cells

12

Forms the muscociliary apparatus

Goblet + Ciliated cells

13

Replacement cells that can differentiate into other respiratory epithelial cells

Basal cells (usually do not reach the surface)

14

Secretory cells that contain membrane-bound, dense-core granules at the base of the cell

Small granule cells

15

What respiratory cells are homologous to enteroendocrine cells?

Small granule cells

16

Contains extensive venous plexus near the inferior and medial nasal conchae to help warm up inspired air

Lamina propria

17

smooth portion of the respiratory system

Medial wall

18

Contains the turbinates of the respiratory segment

Lateral wall

19

Purpose of turbinates?

Increases surface area for warming and moistening of the incoming air. Also causes air turbulence for more efficient conditioning of the incoming air

20

How is the olfactory epithelium specialized?

Contains neurons and lacks goblet cells

21

Identifiers of olfactory cells

Nuclei are mostly within the middle of the epithelial layer

22

Bipolar neuron that spans the entire thickeness of the epithelium

Olfactory cell

23

Knob-like structure that the olfactory cell pole projects from

Olfactory vesicle

24

What is the apical surface of the olfactory dendrite covered in?

Immotile Cilia

25

What do the cilia of the olfactory cells contain?

Olfactory receptors

26

What forms the olfactory nerve?

Axons of the olfactory cells

27

Most numerous of the cell types in the olfactory epithelium?

Supporting or sustentacular cells

28

Appearance of sustenacular cells

Tall columnar cells with apical nuclei, apical surface covered in microvilli

29

Provides mechanical and metabolical support for the olfactory cells

Sustentacular cells

30

Progenitor cells that can differentiate into other types

Basal Cells

31

One of the very few neurons in the body that are replaced in postnatal development

Olfactory neurons

32

Contents of the lamina propria

Bowman's glands (olfactory glands), unmyelinated axons, venous sinuses

33

Branched tubuloalveolar serous-secreting glands of the olfactory lamina propria

Bowman's glands

34

Secretion of olfactory glands

Watery secretion

35

Lines the nasopharynx

Respiratory epithelium (ciliated pseudostratified columnar)

36

Layers of the trachea

Mucosa, submucosa, tracheal cartilage, trachealis muscle, adventitia

37

2 tissue types in tracheal mucosa

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) and lamina propria

38

What does the respiratory epithelium rest on?

Thick basement membrane with a well-developed reticular lamina, composed primarily of collagen

39

What part of the mucosa is well-developed in the trachea?

Elastic lamina propria

40

What is the tracheal submucosa composed of?

Loose connective tissue and seromucous glands

41

Separates the submucosa from the adventitia

Tracheal cartilages

42

Connects the free ends of each C-shaped cartilage

Trachealis muscle (smooth muscle fiber), not continuous muscle, and only on the posterior of the trachea

43

Most external layer of the trachea, binds the trachea to adjacent structures

Adventitia

44

Characteristics of bronchi

Cartilagenous plates and contiuous layer of smooth muscle

45

Parts of the walls of bronchi

Mucosa, muscularis, submucosa, discontinuous cartilagenous plates, adventitia

46

Cells that form the bronchi mucosa

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells over lamina propria, identical to trachea

47

Structure in bronchi lamina propria that can be used to differentiate bronchi from trachea

Bronchi-associated lymphatic tissue

48

Smooth muscle of the bronchi

Muscularis

49

What makes up the submucosa of the bronchi?

Loose connective tissue with glands and adipose tissue

50

Hyaline cartilage covered with perichondruim forms this as it decends all the way to the minor bronchi

Discontiuous cartilagenous plates

51

When does the bronchi turn into a bronchiole?

When the discontinuous cartilagenous plates disappear

52

Moderately dense connective tissue that is adjacent with that of the pulmonary artery and lung parenchyma

Adventitia

53

What is lacking in the walls of bronchioles?

Cartilage and glands

54

Largest to smallest lung tubes

Bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli

55

General cell type in the terminal bronchioles

simple cuboidal epithelium

56

2 types of cells in terminal bronchioles

Cuboidal cells with cilia, club cells

57

Cells in terminal bronchioles that assist in the transport of airway seretions up the bronchioles

Ciliated cuboidal cells

58

Specialized secretory cells in the terminal bronchioles

Club cells

59

Distinctive features of club cells

Well-developed RER/SER/Golgi apparatus, numerous secretory vesicles in the apical portion

60

Amount of smooth muscle in the terminal bronachiole

Significant amount

61

First brochioles to perform gas exchange

Respiratory bronchioles

62

Ratio of club cells to ciliated cuboidal cells in respiratory bronchioles

Large number of club cells

63

Amount of smooth muscle in respiratory bronchioles

little

64

At the end of the respiratory bronchiole

Alveolar duct

65

Spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli

Alveolar sacs

66

Major site of gas exchange

Alveoli

67

Separates each alveoli

Alveolar septa

68

Make up the interstitium of the alveoli

Capillaries and connective tissue

69

Characteristics of the alveolar capillaries

Riches capillary network in the body, are continuous capillaries, lined with very thin endothelium.

70

2 main cell types in alveoli

Type I and Type II pneumocytes

71

Alveolar cell that is flattened, squamous, forms 95% of surface cells, joined to one another via occluding junctions, basal lamina are fused with endothelial cells of the tight capillaries

Type 1 pneumocyte

72

Makes up the air-blood barrier

Type I pneumocytes, endothelial cells, and fused basial laminae

73

Alveolar cell that is round, large, secretory, capable of mitosis

Type II pneumocyte

74

What granules do type II pneumocytes contain?

Multilamellar bodies, that contain surfactant

75

What is the purpose of surfactant?

Creates a film to reuce the surface tension inside alveoi, thus preventing their collapse

76

Which alveolar cell acts as a progenitor for the other?

Type II acts as a progenitor for type one

77

When the level of surfactant in infants is not enough to prevent collapsing of the alveoli

Respiratory distress syndrome

78

Connects neighboring alveoli

Alveolar pores

79

Purpose of alveolar pores

Equalize air pressure and provide collateral air circulation if a bronchiole is obstructed

80

Cells that ar epresent in spetal walls and alveolar spaces, collect particles like dust and pollen,

Alveolar macrophages

81

MOA of TB

Alveolar macrophages cannot digest the mycobacterium tuberculosis, so it accumulates in the cell, causing damage to the cell, which releases the stored bacteria, furthering the infection

82

Leading cause of mortality worldwide

Lung cancer

83

2 most common types of malignant tumors found in the lung

Non-small cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma

84

Most common cause of lung cancer

Non-small cell carcinoma

85

Most aggressive and highly malignant lung cancer that is almost always found in smokers

Small-cell carcinoma