Male Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Histology Sem 3 > Male Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Reproduction Deck (96):
1

Major function of testes

Produce male gametes or spermatozoa and androgens

2

Male excurrent ducts

Ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis, ductus vas deferens

3

Male accessory sex glands

Seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands

4

Outer dense connective tissue of the testis

Tunica albuginea

5

Inner layer of the testis capsule

Tunica vasculosa

6

Posterior surface of the tunica albuginea that thickens and projects inward

Mediastinum testis

7

Spaces between seminiferous tubules

Testicular interstitium

8

Steriod-producing endocrine cells located in the testicular interstitium

Leydig cells

9

Cell structure of Leydig cells

Well-developed SER, mitochondria with tubular cristae, numerous lipid droplets, crystals of Reinke on electron microscope

10

Functions of Leydig Cells

Main source of testosterone

11

Cells of the seminiferous epithelium

Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells

12

Composition of the tunica propria of the seminiferous tubules

Fibroblasts and collagen fibrils

13

Support cells of the seminiferous epithelium

Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells

14

Appearance of the Sertoli cells

Large, irregular, very light-staining euchromatic nucleus with well-expressed nucleolus

15

What is unique about the Sertoli cell junctions

Both tight and adherence junctions that can be disassembled and reassembled under certain factors

16

How do the Sertoli cells help germ cells?

Nourish, participate in cell movement and differentiation

17

Divisions that the Sertoli cells make

Basal and adluminal compartments

18

Barrier between blood and maturing sperm cells

Blood-testis barrier made by the Sertoli cells

19

What is the effect of the blood-testis barrier?

Immunologically privileged site, which limits/suppresses the immune response here

20

What do the Sertoli cells secrete?

Androgen-binding proteins and inhibin

21

Binds testosterone and is used to maintain the high testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubules

Androgen-binding proteins

22

Secreted by Sertoli cells to inhibit FSH by the pituitary

Inhibin

23

What happens to residual bodies and dengerated germ cells within the seminiferous epithelium?

Sertoli cells phagocytize them

24

Hormonal regulation of Sertoli cells

Testosterone produced by Leydig cells and FSH produced by pituitary glands

25

Cells that replicate and differentiate into mature sperm

Spermatogenic cells (germ cells)

26

How are germ cells organized within the seminiferous epithelium?

Most immature stages are located closer to the tunica propria, more mature cells move into the adluminal compartment

27

Initial stage of development of the sperm

Spermatogonial phase

28

3 Types of spermatogonia cells

Type A dark, Type A pale, Type B

29

Describe type A dark spermatogonia

Ovoid nuclei with basophilic dark granular chromatin

30

Describe type A pale spermatogonia

Ovoid nuclei with lightly-staining fine granular chromatin, derived from from Ad cells

31

How are type B spermatogonia cells formed?

Type A pale undergo mitosis to differentiate into type B

32

Describe type B spermatogonia

Spherical nuclei with chromatin condensed into large clumps

33

Most mature spermatogonia

Type B

34

Phase in which spermatocytes undergo meiosis

Spermatocyte phase

35

Describe spermatocytes

Round nucleus

36

Derived from type B spermatogonia. Get arrested in prophase I of the 1st division of meiosis

Primary spermatocytes

37

Spermatocytes in meiosis II

Secondary spermatocytes

38

Haploids formed from meiotic divisions of secondary spermatocytes

Spermatids

39

Phase in which extensive cell remodeling occurs when spermatids differentiate into mature sperm

Spermatid phase

40

Stages of spermatid remodeling

Golgi phase, cap phase, Acrosome phase, Maturation phase

41

Describe the Golgi phase

Accumulation of numerous proacrosomal granules that start to become a larger acrosomal vesicle, centrioles migrate to the posterior pole to form the axoneme

42

Central core of the sperm tail with 9 peripheral doublets

Axoneme

43

Describe the Cap phase

Acrosomal vesicles spreads around the nucleus to form the acrosomal cap

44

Describe the acrosome phase

Spermatid changes its orientation so that the head is embedded into the Sertoli call, developing flagellum is pointed towards the lumen

45

How does the germ cell change during the acrosome phase?

Cell/nucleus becomes more elongated and nucleus flattens; nucleus and acrosomal cap migrate anteriorly; manchette is formed; neck region is formed; mitochondria migrate posteriorly to form the middle piece of the tail; manchette disappears

46

Cytoplasmic microtubules that form a cylindrical sheath in the changing germ cell

Manchette

47

Connects the nucleus to the flagellum

Neck region

48

Describe the maturation stage

Excessive sytoplasm is removed to form residual bodies (consumed by Sertoli cells) cytoplasmic bridges b/t the spermatids are broken and individual spermatids are liberated from the system

49

Parts of a sperm

head, neck, tail

50

Lysosome-like organelle that contains enzymes secreted during fertilization in order to digest an opening in the zona pellucida of the ovum

Acrosome

51

Short, narrow area where the centrioles are located

Neck region

52

Contains axoneme and associated structures

Tail

53

3 segments of the tail

Middle piece, prinicpal piece, end piece

54

Describe the middle piece

Contains spiral mitochondria wrapped around the outer dense fibers that surround the axoneme

55

Longest segment of the tail containing the axoneme covered with outer dense fibers

Principal piece

56

Portion of the tail that is not covered with outer dense fibers

End piece

57

Important factor that influences spermatogenesis

Testicular temperature is kept at 35degrees C due to the pampiniform plexus

58

Where do sperm go after they are formed?

Straight tubules (tubuli recti)

59

Cells of the rete testis

Ducts lined with simple cubodial epithelium

60

3 External male genital ducts

Ductuli efferentes, ductus epididymidis, ductus vas deferens

61

Cresent shaped organ that lies along the superior and posterior surface of the testis, prinicple site of sperm maturation

Epididymis

62

Highly coiled tubules that connect rete testis to the ductus epididymidis

Ductuli efferentes

63

Cells of the ductuli efferentes

Low, pseudostratified columnar epithilium with both cilitated and non-ciliated cells, gives a saw tooth appearance

64

Composition of the ductus epididymidis

Highly coiled tube that contains smooth muscle and connective tissue with associated vessels in its walls

65

Cells of the ductus epididymidis

Tall pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia

66

The continuation of the tail of the epididymis, straight tube that continues from the epididymus to the prostatic urethra

Ductus vas deferens

67

Lines the mucosa of the vas deferens

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with deep longitudinal folds

68

Layers of the ductuc vas deferens

Mucosa, muscularis, adventitia

69

Paired elongated tubular glands, that opens into the ampulla of the vas deferens

Seminal vesicles

70

Parts of the seminal vesicle

Mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis, fibrous coat

71

What are the cells of the seminal vesicle mucosa rich in?

Secretory granules

72

What do the secretory granules of the seminal vesicle cells contain?

Spermatozoa-activating substances: carbohydrates(mostly fructose), prostaglandins, several proteins

73

Largest accessory sex gland in the male

Prostate

74

Surrounds the prostate

Fibrocollagenous connective tissue capsule that contains smooth muscle fibers

75

Type of cells in the tubuloalveolar glands of the prostate

Low columnar/cuboidal pseudostratified epithelium

76

Zones of prostatic gland

Transitional zone, peripheral zone

77

Contains the mucosal layer of glands and is located near the prostatic urethra

Transitional zone

78

Contains the main prostatic glands

Peripheral zone

79

What does the stroma of the prostate consist of?

Fibroblasts, collagen fibers, smooth muscle fibers

80

Spherical concretions composed of what are often found in the lumen of the tubuloalveolar glands?

Corpora amylacea

81

Secretions of the prostate

Acid phosphate, citric acid, fibrinolysis

82

Decrease in testosterone does what to the prostate?

Maintain structural and functional integrity, maintain secretory activity

83

Significant enlargement of the glands of the transitional zone

Begnign prostatic hyperplasia

84

Where does prostate cancer almost always originate?

Peripheral zone

85

Describe the bulbourethral glands

Compound tubuloalveolar glands that are mucus-secreting (for lubrication)

86

2 dorsal cylinders of the penis

Corpora cavernosa

87

Ventral cylinder of the penis

Corpus spongiosum

88

Surrounds the cylinders and holds them together

Tunica albuginea

89

Fill with blood during an erection

Vascular spaces

90

Mucus secreting glands of the corpus spongiosum

Glands of Littre

91

Unique aspect of the skin of the penis

Loose subcutis

92

Overlap of the penile skin

Prepuce

93

Where does the erectile tissue receive the majority of its blood?

Helicine arteries

94

What happens in response to GnRH?

Gonadotropes produce LH that acts on the Leydig cells and FSH that acts on Sertoli cells

95

What do Leydig cells produce

Testosterone

96

What hormone do Sertoli cells produce?

Androgen-binding proteins and inhibin