Flashcards in Histology Deck (34)
Function of conchae.
increase respiratory surface area and aid ﬁltration by creating eddies (circular movement) in the air stream
Lamina propria of respiratory region of nasal cavity is attached to:
Epithelial lining of:
1. pseudostratiﬁed ciliated columnar with goblet cells
2. stratified squamous, nonkeratinized
Epithelium over luminal surface of vocal cords:
Thick ______ is characteristic of tracheal epithelium
How does structural wall change when bronchi become intrapulmonary?
1. muscularis mucosa appears
2. cartilage now present
What is the function of Clara cells? (where?)
interspersed cells within non-PSCCE that secrete surface active agent (Clara cell protein) into bronchioles
What type of epithelium is present in bronchioles?
mostly pseudostratified ciliated columnar
small amount of simple columnar or cuboidal (have cilia; no goblet cells)
Well developed in bronchioles
(major regulator or airway resistance)
Connective tissue lining with or without mesothelial lining
serosa or adventitia
CT that is often looser than lamina propria; surrounded by muscularis externa
3 layers of mucosa
(interior to exterior)
Intrapulmonary portion of pulmonary tree (7)
1. secondary bronchi
2. tertiary bronchi
4. Terminal bronchioles
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveolar ducts
Lamina propria within mucosa of respiratory region contains: (3)
1. rich vascular network
2. seromucous glands
3. lymphocytes and other immune cells
Epithelial lining of larynx
pseudostratiﬁed ciliated columnar with goblet cells and stratified squamous
4 layers of trachea
3. hyaline cartilage
Epithelium of trachea
Bronchiole + Terminal bronchioles?
1. ciliated cuboidal cells + clara cells proximally --> clara cells distally
2. PSCC > simple columnar/cuboidal
Peripheral boundary of alveolar ducts
(ducts have almost no walls)
spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli
(alveoli open into sacs)
Sites where gas exchange occurs
Epithelium of type I alveolar cells
Epithelium of type II alveolar cells
What serves as stem cells for type I alveolar cells?
type II alveolar cells
Alveolar cells that secrete surfactant and proteins that participate in immune function
type II alveolar cells
Most gas exchange occurs in what portion of the alveolar septum?
What does the thin region of the alveolar septum consist of?
type I epithelium and its basal lamina
an endothelial cell and its basal lamina
This portion of the alveolar sac allows cells to intervene between the epithelium of the alveolus and the capillary.
(note: macrophages and fibroblasts are among cells in this area)
Macrophages found in thick part of alveolar septum:
(What is their function?)
scavenging inhaled particulate matter
What is the function of alveolar macrophages in heart failure?
("heart failure cells")
What happens to engorged alveolar macrophages? (2 possibilities listed)
1. reach the throat as mucus, where they are swallowed
2. retreat into septum and hang out there with their ingested material for years
Macrophages may digest _____, which aren't digested and may reinfect.
What are alveolar pores (of Kohn)? What is their function?
openings in interalveolar septa that allow air to pass between the alveoli; this provides air to alveoli where nml air pathway has been obstructed by pathological conditions