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Flashcards in Histology Deck (34):
1

Function of conchae.

increase respiratory surface area and aid filtration by creating eddies (circular movement) in the air stream

2

Lamina propria of respiratory region of nasal cavity is attached to:

underlying bone

3

Epithelial lining of:
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx

1. pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells
2. stratified squamous, nonkeratinized

4

Epithelium over luminal surface of vocal cords:

stratified squamous

5

Thick ______ is characteristic of tracheal epithelium

basement membrane

6

How does structural wall change when bronchi become intrapulmonary?

1. muscularis mucosa appears
2. cartilage now present

7

What is the function of Clara cells? (where?)

interspersed cells within non-PSCCE that secrete surface active agent (Clara cell protein) into bronchioles

8

What type of epithelium is present in bronchioles?

mostly pseudostratified ciliated columnar

small amount of simple columnar or cuboidal (have cilia; no goblet cells)

9

Well developed in bronchioles

muscularis
(major regulator or airway resistance)

10

Connective tissue lining with or without mesothelial lining

serosa or adventitia

11

CT that is often looser than lamina propria; surrounded by muscularis externa

submucosa

12

3 layers of mucosa
(interior to exterior)

epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosa

13

Intrapulmonary portion of pulmonary tree (7)

1. secondary bronchi
2. tertiary bronchi
3. bronchioles
4. Terminal bronchioles
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveolar ducts
7. alveoli

14

Lamina propria within mucosa of respiratory region contains: (3)

1. rich vascular network
2. seromucous glands
3. lymphocytes and other immune cells

15

Epithelial lining of larynx

pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells and stratified squamous

16

4 layers of trachea

1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. hyaline cartilage
4. adventitia

17

Epithelium of trachea

PSCC

18

Epithelium of
Respiratory bronchioles?
Bronchiole + Terminal bronchioles?

1. ciliated cuboidal cells + clara cells proximally --> clara cells distally

2. PSCC > simple columnar/cuboidal

19

Peripheral boundary of alveolar ducts

alveoli
(ducts have almost no walls)

20

Alveoli sacs

spaces surrounded by clusters of alveoli
(alveoli open into sacs)

21

Sites where gas exchange occurs

alveoli

22

Epithelium of type I alveolar cells

squamous

23

Epithelium of type II alveolar cells

cuboidal

24

What serves as stem cells for type I alveolar cells?

type II alveolar cells

25

Alveolar cells that secrete surfactant and proteins that participate in immune function

type II alveolar cells

26

Most gas exchange occurs in what portion of the alveolar septum?

thin region

27

What does the thin region of the alveolar septum consist of?

surfactant
type I epithelium and its basal lamina
an endothelial cell and its basal lamina

28

This portion of the alveolar sac allows cells to intervene between the epithelium of the alveolus and the capillary.

thick region
(note: macrophages and fibroblasts are among cells in this area)

29

Macrophages found in thick part of alveolar septum:
(What is their function?)

dust cells
scavenging inhaled particulate matter

30

What is the function of alveolar macrophages in heart failure?

scavenge RBCs
("heart failure cells")

31

What happens to engorged alveolar macrophages? (2 possibilities listed)

1. reach the throat as mucus, where they are swallowed
2. retreat into septum and hang out there with their ingested material for years

32

Macrophages may digest _____, which aren't digested and may reinfect.

tuberculosis

33

What are alveolar pores (of Kohn)? What is their function?

openings in interalveolar septa that allow air to pass between the alveoli; this provides air to alveoli where nml air pathway has been obstructed by pathological conditions

34

What is CC16?

marker for lung damage that is secreted by Clara cells