Flashcards in Pneumonia (SultanAli) Deck (29)
How is pneumonia characterized?
2. respiratory signs and symptoms
(cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, pleuritic pain, expectoration)
3. at least one opacity on CXR
4. possible flu-like symptoms
T/F: lung infection has the greatest global burden of all diseases
____ is the #8 leading cause of death in the US
community acquired pneumonia
Who is most commonly infected with pneumonia?
very young and the elderly (bimodal disease)
What are the risk factors for comm acquired pneumonia?
1. age (very young and very old)
2. personal habits (etoh/smoking)
4. immunodeficiency (neutropenia, asplenia)
5. occupational (soldiers, animal exposure)
(*do we need to learn the specifics?)
Marijuana use increases the risk of infection by what organism?
Common causes of CAP in patients who do NOT require hospitalization:
(Severe Pneumonia Makes me Cough Hard)
Common causes of severe CAP
enteric g- bacilli
Routes to the lung:
(what are the two most common?)
reactivation (more common in immunocompr)
Hospital acquired pneumonia usually results from what route to the lung?
By what routes does TB infect?
reactivation in immunocompromised indv
What three factors determine if exposure will result in pneumonia?
1. host defenses
2. agent virulence
3. inoculum load
What are common oral flora?
gram + cocci
What flora are common sub-epiglottis?
What type of infections are related to:
What are mechanical host defense mechanisms?
How do macrophages function in host defense?
1. initial defense against pathogens--prevent in alveoli
2. eliminate intracellular organisms (Legionella)
What cellular immune cells protect against:
1. T cell lymphocytes
2. B cell lymphocytes
3. T cell lymphocytes
Level of hypoxia correlates with:
severity of disease
How does pneumonia cause hypoxia?
What cytokines are produced by inflammation?
What does this cause?
TNF, IL1, IL6, PAF
cellular damage > capillary leakage
Exudate and pus in the lungs causes:
impaired gas exchange
Pneumonia = infection of:
What three symptoms, when present, correlate to a pneumonia likelihood ratio of 5?
fever + tachypnea + tachycardia
Chest exam findings that = pneumonia: (7)
1. dullness to percussion
2. increased fremitus
5. pleural friction rub
6. rales (in sitting position)
7. bronchial breath sounds (louder and harsher than vesicular breath sounds)
What is the function of quantifying characteristics of patients with pneumonia (pneumonia severity index)?
determine risk of mortality in order to drive decisions for management (admit, ICU, discharge, etc)
What are the pneumonia severity index criteria?
CAP results in __% requiring ICU admission; among those patients, there is a ___% mortality rate