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Flashcards in URT Disorders Deck (32):
1

etiologies of the common cold

Rhinovirus
Influenza
Adenovirus
Coronavirus
group A strep

2

Seasonality of rhino virus

early fall

3

Seasonality of corona virus

winter

4

Why does the common cold lead to rhinorrhea?

virus infect cells
--> inflammation --> inc vascular permeability --> serum transudation --> rhinorrhea

--> irritation of airway receptors --> cholinergic stim --> inc mucus production

***8:34

5

Why does the common cold lead to cough?

virus infect cells --> irritation of airway receptors --> cholinergic stim -->bronchoconstriction --> cough

6

Why does the common cold lead to nasal obstruction?

virus infect cells --> inflammation
--> inc vascular permeability --> tissue edema --> obstruction
--> vascular dilation --> obstruction

7

how is the common cold transmitted

direct contact > inhalation

8

how is the common cold managed?

supportive care, NO abx

9

What usually causes sinusitis?

2ndary infection bc the outflow from one of the sinuses is decreased
**most often maxillary sinus

10

What are the predisposing factor to developing sinusitis ?

1. impaired mucocillialry function
2. obstruction of sinus ostia
3. immune defects
4. increased risk from cocaine use. swimming, intubation, etc

11

presents as...
Nasal discharge, nasal congestion, facial pressure, cough, fever, muscle aches, joint pains, sore throat with hoarseness

acute viral rhibosinusitis

12

What is the seasonality of acute viral Rhinosinusitis

fall, winter, spring

13

Causative agents of acute bacterial sinusitis

S. pneumo
Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae
Moraxella Catarrhalis

14

Feeling of fullness and pressure over the involved sinuses, nasal congestion and purulent nasal discharge.Sore throat, malaise, low grade fever, headache, toothache, cough > 1 week duration.

acute bacterial sinusitis

15

How long does cough usually last in acute bacterial sinusitis?

> 1 week

16

How long may symptoms last in acute viral and bacterial sinusitis?

10-14 days

17

How is the diagnosis of sinusitis made?

clinical signs and symptoms:
palpate sinuses and look for deviated nasal septum

18

How is bacterial sinusitis treated?

most improve w/o intervention

abx for those that have symp > 10 days or worsening symp

19

What tx for acute bac sinusitis should be discouraged

OTC nasal decongestant sprays for > 5 days

20

What supportive therapies can be used for sinusitis?

1. steam to liquify secretions
2. sailine qid to liquify secretions
3. decongestants to inc ostial diameter
4. topical steroids (limit to chronic sinusitis/allergies)

21

What is the definition of chronic sinusitis?
What is the "cure"?

1. sinusitis symptoms for > 12 weeks
2. > 4 episodes/year (each lasting >10 days)
3. CT showing persistent infection despite abx

surgery

22

osteomeatal obstruction

pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis

23

Who gets acute phayngitis?

5-18 yo and adult women

24

Centor critera

1. tonsilar exudates
2. tender ant cervical adenopathy
3. Hx of fever
4. absence of cough

**Patients with 0-2 Centor criteria = unlikely to have GAS (should not receive either antibiotic treatment or diagnostic testing)

*CENTor (cervical LAD, exudates, no cough, temp)

25

Dx of strep pharyngitis \

Gold std = throat culture
rapid Ag detection
** if rapid Ag screen in negative, get CULTURE

26

Complications of strep pharyngitis

1. acute rheumatoid fever
2. post strep glomerulonephritis
3. scarlet fever
4. peritonsilar abscess
5. strep TSS
6. epiglottitis

GREATS (glomeruloneph, rheumatoid fever, epiglottitis, abscess, toxic shock, scarlet fever)

27

coalescing pseudomembrane that adheres tightly to the underlying tissue and bleeds with scraping

diptheria

28

WHat is the most common infectious cause of epiglottitis?

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
***there is a vaccine so it is rate now

29

T or F: suspected epiglottitis is a medical emergency

T

30

How does epiglottitis presnet

the three Ds
dysphagia, drooling, and distress

**will be in tripod position too

31

orthomyxovirus

influenza

32

significance of ss-RNA in influenze

high mutation rate
**not saying anything more bc everything else he has is in the micro shit