histology Flashcards Preview

GI > histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in histology Deck (58):
1

parotid gland

largest of salivary glands
25% of salivary volume
compound tubulo-acinar gland
secretion is serous (salivary amylase)
adipose tissue

2

submanbular gland

w/sublingual 70% of saliva
mixed, but mostly serous
serous demilune:
-serous cells (salivary amylase)
-mucous cells (mucins)

3

sublingual

w/submandibular 70% saliva
mixed gland, but mostly mucous
serous cells, mucous cells, and serous demilunes

4

minor salivary glands

located in CT
5% saliva

5

external aspect of lip

covered w/normal thin skin
continous w/vermilion zone

6

vermilion zone

pink region of lip
extensive dermal papillae
capillary loops give color
devoid of hair and sweat glands

7

internal aspect

always wet
strasfied squamous wet epi
dense irregular CT underlying
many minor salivary glands

8

teeth

20 deciduous
replaced by 32 permanent teeth:
20 succedaneous
12 molars

9

anatomy of tooth

crown- visible
root- w/in alveolus
cervix- btwn crown and root
enamel- hardest substance in body
dentin
cermentum

10

pulp space

-pulp chamber (in crown and cervix)
-root canal (in root) has apical foramen for passage of blood, lymph, nn

11

gingiva

tough mucous membrane exposed to strenuous forces
stratisfied squamous epi (paritially-fully cornified)
dense irregular CT (collagen type I)
as epi approaches tooth:
-curves and proceeds toward root tip
-attached to enamel surface by hemidesmosomes
-forms a barrier btwn oral cavity and gingival CT

12

Hard palate

anterior
bony immovable, rigid
statisfied squamous epi (partially-fully cornified)
dense irregular CT (anteriorly displays clusters of adipose, posteriorly minor salivary glands)

13

soft palate

posterior
fleshy, movable
core of skeletal m
stratified squamous noncornified epi
subjacent dense irregular CT
minor salivary glands

14

uvula

posterior extension of soft palate
lined by stratified squamous noncornified epi
mix of serous and seromucous glands and m

15

tongue

intertwined mass of skeletal m:
-extrinsic m
-intrinsic:
~superior longitudinal
~inferior longitudinal
~vertical
~transverse

16

glands of tongue

mucous- glands of Nuhn
serous- von Ebners

17

sulcus terminalis

divides tongue into ant 2/3 and post 1/3
foramen cecum

18

dorsal surface of tongue

lingual papilae ant 2/3s
lingual papillae type:
-filiform
-fungiform
-circumvallate
-foliate

19

filifrom

numerous slender structures
impart velvety appearance to dorsal surface
straified squamous cornified epi
function to scrap food
no taste buds

20

fungiform

covered by stratified squamous non-cornified
red dots throughout due to subepithelial capillaries
have taste buds on dorsal aspect of 'cap'

21

circumvallate

8-12, in V-shape ant to sulcus terminalis
surrounded by epi lined groove
taste buds w/in groove and side, not on dorsum

22

foliate

located along posteriolateral aspect
appear as verticle furrows
have functional taste buds in neonate, degenerate by 2 or 3
slender ducts of serous minor salivary glands empty into base of furrows at the core of the tongue

23

taste bud

about 3000 on surface of tongue
distinctly paler
70-80um long, 30-40um wide
each has 60-80 spindle shaped cells
taste pore opens into squamous epi

24

cell types in taste bud

gustatory (neuroepi)
sustentacular
basal

25

general plan lumen out

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
adventitia

26

mucosa

lining of internal passages
barrier btwn tissues and external environment
thin enough for absorption and/or secretion
supplemental mucus glands common in CT

27

mucosal layers

-epithelium (included BM), type varies
-lamina propria, loose CT underlying and supporting epi, contains vessels, lymph, nn, mucosal glands
-muscularis mucosae: 2 layers of smooth m;
~ inner circular,
~outer longitudinal,
~at times 3rd layer (stomach), obllique

28

submucosa

layer of CT w/some elastic fibers
vessels, lymph, nn, parasympathetic ganglia (meissners plexus), sumucosal glands

29

2 layers of smooth m

inner circular, outer longitudinal, both spiraled
vascular and ANS plexi
parasympathetic ganglia (Auerbachs plexus): maintains tonus in tube, propels luminal contents

30

adventitia

-outermost coat of dense CT, blends w/CT of surrounding area

31

serosa

hollow oragns w/in or projecting into cavity covered w/peritoneum
single layer of mesothelial cells
entire coat then called serosa
large vessels and nn found here

32

developmentally

epithlial lining from endoderm
CT and smooth m from mesoderm

33

moving distally

SA increases
lumen widens
invaginations (pits)
more distally become invaginations (crypts) and evaginations (villi)
goblet cells increase
basophilia of mucous increases
lyph infiltation of CT increases

34

duodenum

secondarily retroperitoneal
10-12"
bile and pancreatic ducts enter

35

jejunum

peritoneal 2/5s 8 ft

36

ileum

peritoneal 3/5s 12 ft

37

large intestine

water reabsorption
dehydration of chyme
produces mucous secretion
fecal storage
similar to colon, but muscualris externa of rectum complete mucosal folds buldge into lumen
numberous goblet cells
occasional enteroendocrine cells
connects to anal canal

38

anal canal

connects rectum to anus
pectinate line epi changes from simple columnar to stratified wet squamous
retroperitoneal

39

esophageal mucosa

~epi- straified non-cornified, very thick, relatively acellular CT
~lamina propria- boundary provides better attachement for epi, PEG= downward projections of epi, PAPILLAE= upward projections of CT, contains scattered lymp nodules, cardiac esophageal glands
~muscularis mucosae- well developed may contain several layers of smooth m and some elastic fibers

40

esophagus submucosa

thrown into longitudinal folds
characteristic star shaped lumen
folds allow lumen to dilate for passage of food bolus
esophogeal glands - secrete mucous via ducts

41

esophagus muscularis externa

smooth/skeletal ratio increases, no skeletal distally

42

esophagus adventitia

blends w/surronding CT
NO SEROSA

43

cardioesophageal jnx

sudden change from straified squamous to simple columnar

44

anatomical regions of stomach

cardiac
body
fundus
pyloric

45

histological regions of stomach

cardia
fundus (includes body)
pylorus

46

stomach mucosa

epi- simple columnar, mucous-secreting cells (not goblet cells), invaginates to line gastric pits, filled w/many gastric glands which open via gastric pits
lamina propria- occupies slit like spaces btwn gastric glands and pits
muscularis mucosa- present at level of base of glands

47

stomach submucosa

extends into rugae, contains blood, lymph, nn, CT

48

muscularis externa

inner layer- runs obliquely incomplete
middle- circular, continuous w/inner layer of gut tube, thick at pylorus to form sphincter
outer layer- longitudinal, continuous w/outer layer of gut tube

49

stomach outer tunic

serosal layer

50

cardiac region

narrow ring shaped area around esophogeal opening
gastric pits extend 1/4-1/2 depth of mucosa
cardiac gastric glands empty into base of pits
surface mucosal cells- on mucosal surface and lining pits (turn over in 4-5 days)
undifferentiated cells- in base of pits and neck of glands

51

fundic reegion

2/3s of stomach
gastric pits 1/4-1/3 of mucosa
1 pit= 3-7 glands
muccous neck cell (neck of gland)
parietal cells (neck, mostly base)
zymogentic chief cells (base)
enterodendocrine cells aka argentaffin cells (few in number in base)

52

pyloric regions

distal 1/3 of stomach
pits 1/2 depth of mucosa
pyloric glands short and coiled: mucous secreting
and gastrin secreting cells

53

main gastric glands

surface mucous cells, columnar cells cover entire surace and line gastric pits
appear empty or foamy (due to mucous lost in prep)
secrete neutral mucus

54

mucous neck cells

flattened basal nuclei
secretion granules and microvilli are apical
produce acidic mucus
differ structurally from surface mucous cells

55

parietal cells

large, round, or triangular, cells w/dark central nuclei
cytoplasm stains pink to red
smooth ER prominent in ctyoplasm
microvilli and intracellular canaliculi present
produce: HCL, intrinsic factor (required for absorption of vit B12)

56

chief cell

pale staining
oval nuclei and mito are basal
apical secretion granules
microvilli
alot of rough ER
produce: pepsin and lipase

57

gastric enteroendocrine cells

throughout GI tract, most common in small intestines
in gastric glands btwn chief cells and BM
synthesize/store: gastrin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, serotonin, glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide

58

oral cavity

mucosa- stratified squamous non-cornified epi and underlying CT