histology 18: liver, pancreas and gallbladder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in histology 18: liver, pancreas and gallbladder Deck (75):
1

what is the approximate volume in the human gallbladder

50 mL

2

what surface of the liver is the gallbladder attached to

visceral

3

what type of epithelium is in the mucosal folds of the gallbladder

simple columnar epithelium

4

describe the microvilli of the cholangiocytes

numerous but short and not well-developed and apical

5

what does the muscular externa originate from

foregut derived tube

6

what is the layer of tissue where the gallbladder attaches to the liver surface referred to as

adventitia

7

what do rokitansky-aschoff sinuses develop as the result of

hyperplasia and herniation of epithelial cells through the muscularis external

8

what coupled transport is required for the concentration of bile

salt and water

9

what do the epithelial cells of the gallbladder actively transport

Na+, Cl- and HCO3-

10

where does the pancreatic duct (of wirsung) empty into the duodenum

hepatopancreatic ampulla (of vater)

11

what does the exocrine component of the pancreas do

synthesizes and secretes enzymes into the duodenum that are essential for digestion in the intestine

12

what does the endocrine pancreas synthesize and secrete

insulin and glucagon

13

what are the major cell masses of the endocrine pancreas

islets of langerhans

14

what gland does the exocrine pancreas resemble

parotid gland

15

what are acinar cells characterized by

distinct basophilia in the basal cytoplasm and by acidophilic zymogen granules in the apical cytoplasm

16

who are zymogen granules most common in

fasting individuals

17

what are acinar cells joined to one another

junctional complexes

18

describe centroacinar cells

intercalated duct cells located in the acinus

19

what type of epithelium of interlobular ducts lined with

low columnar epithelium

20

what do intercalated ducts add to the exocrine secretion

bicarbonate and water

21

about how much fluid does the pancreas secrete per day

1 L

22

what does CCK stimulates the acinar cells to secrete

their proenzymes

23

what color do A, B and D cells stain in the mallory-azan method

A stain red, B stain brownish-orange and D stain blue

24

what cells constitute the majority of the islet of langerhans

B cells

25

what do A, B, and D cells secrete

A secrete glucagon, B secrete insulin, and D secrete somatostatin

26

what cells secrete Ghrelin

Epsilon cells

27

what does Ghrelin do

stimulates appetite

28

what disorder is characterized by absence or inadequate amounts of insulin

diabetes mellitus

29

how does parasympathetic/cholinergic stimulation effect insulin and glucagon

increases release of both

30

how does sympathetic/adrenergic stimulation effect insulin and glucagon

increase glucagon but inhibits insulin release

31

how does insulin effect exocrine secretion

stimulates it

32

how does glucagon effect exocrine secretion

inhibits it

33

what is the largest mass of glandular tissue in the body

liver

34

what capsule encloses the liver

glisson's capsule

35

what does the liver embryologically develop from/as

endodermal evagination from the wall of the foregut to form the hepatic diverticulum

36

what produces most of the body's circulating plasma proteins

liver

37

what are albumins involved in

regulating plasma volume and tissue balance by maintaining the plasma colloid osmotic pressure

38

what synthesizes most VLDLs

liver

39

what cells store vitamin A

hepatic stellate cells

40

where does haptoglobin bind to free hemoglobin

in the plasma

41

where is T4 converted to T3

liver

42

where is the lipid component of lipoproteins produced

sER

43

where is the protein component of lipoproteins produced

rER

44

where are chylomicrons made

only in the small intestine

45

what is the main function of chylomicrons

transport the large amount of absorbed fat to the bloodstream

46

what is the function of VLDLs

transport most of the triglycerides from the liver to other organs

47

where do the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver

at the hilum/porta hepatis

48

what does the hepatic artery branch from

the celiac trunk

49

what does the terminal hepatic venule (central vein) empty into

sub lobular veins

50

what are the vascular channels between the plates of hepatocytes

sinusoidal capillaries

51

what functions of the liver does the portal lobule emphasize

exocrine functions

52

what structural component of the liver provides the best correlation between blood perfusion, metabolic activity and liver pathology

liver acinus

53

what does zone 1 of the liver acinus correspond most with

periphery of the classic lobules

54

what is zone 3 of the liver acinus closest to

terminal hepatic vein/ central vein

55

what zone of the liver acinus is first to receive oxygen, nutrients and toxins from sinusoidal blood

zone 1

56

what zone of the liver acinus is first to show morphological changes after bile duct occlusion (bile stasis)

zone 1

57

what zone of the liver acinus is first to show ischemic necrosis in situations of reduced perfusion

zone 3

58

what zone of the liver acinus is first to show fat accumulation

zone 3

59

what are hepatic sinusoids lined with

thin discontinuous endothelium

60

what system to kupffer cells belong to

mononuclear phagocytic system

61

what zone of the liver acinus is first to be effected by CHF

zone 3

62

what is the perisinusoidal space the site of

exchange of materials between blood and liver cells

63

what happens to hepatic stellate cells (ito cells) in pathological conditions

they differentiate into myofibroblasts and synthesize collagen

64

what role do hepatic stellate/ito cells play in hepatic fibronogenesis

they synthesize and deposit type 1 and 3 collagen within the perisinusoidal space, resulting in liver fibrosis

65

where does hepatic lymph originate

perisinusoidal space

66

what cells make up the anastomosing cell plates of the liver lobule

hepatocytes

67

describe the shape of the hepatocytes

polyhedral

68

what do lysosomes concentrated near the bile canaliculus correspond to

there peribiliary dense bodies seen in histologic sections

69

what cells line the biliary tree

cholangiocytes

70

what do cholangiocytes do

monitor bile flow and regulates its content

71

what cells make up the canal of hering

hepatocytes and cholangiocytes

72

where is the reservoir for liver progenitor cells

canal of hering

73

what is the main distinction between the canal of hiring and the bile ductule

whether the structure is partially or completely lined by cholangiocytes (bile duct is completely)

74

what carries bile to the gallbladder and duodenum

extra hepatic bile ducts

75

what is the detoxified end product of hemoglobin breakdown

bilirubin glucuronide