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Flashcards in Histology - IMMS Deck (127)
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1

What colours do haemotoxylin and eosin stain the cell nuclei an cytoplasm?

- Nuclei = blue - Cytoplasm = pink but colour varies depending on nature of cytoplasmic contents

2

What do these stains show: - PAS - Van Gieson - Trichrome - Alcian Blue?

- sugars, e.g. goblet cells - elastic tissue - 3 types of cell - mucins

3

Why do cells vary in size?

Depends on metabolic activity, e.g. lymphocytes smaller than nerve cells as aren’t as metabolically active (need less mitochondria)

4

What are the 6 types of cell shapes?

- rounded - polygonal - fusiform - squamous (flattened) - cuboidal - columnar

5

What common feature do metabolically active cells have?

Nucleoli (within nucleus, site of ribosomal RNA formation)

6

What is chromatin? What are the two types?

Condensed DNA wound around histones. Can’t be transcribed unless decondensed. - Heterochromatin = permanently condensed - Euchromatin = becomes decondensed in the life cycle of the cell

7

What is the mitochondria?

- powerhouse of cell - site of oxidative phosphorylation - have own nucleus

8

What is RER?

Site of protein synthesis, lots of ribosomes

9

What is SER?

- site of membrane lipid synthesis - processes synthesised proteins

10

What is the Golgi apparatus?

- processes macromolecules synthesised in ER - prominent in plasma cells (called perinuclear ‘hoff’)

11

What are the 3 parts of the Golgi apparatus?

- cis face = receives transport vesicles from SER, phosphorylase some proteins - medial Golgi = forms complex oligosaccharides by adding sugars to lipids and peptides - trans Golgi network (end) = sorts macromolecules into vesicles which bud from surface

12

What are vesicles?

Small membrane-bound organelles used for transport, storage and exchanging cell membrane between compartments. An example is a lysosome

13

How are lysosomes formed?

Hydrolyse vesicles fuse with endosomes to form endolysosomes

14

What is the cytoskeleton? What does it contain?

- supports cell’s shape - microfilaments (actin) helps this (smallest, 5nm) - intermediate filaments (6 types) spread tensile forces through tissue = cytokeratin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic, neurofilament, laminin, vimentin - microtubules act as a scaffold for chromosomes during mitosis + meiosis (made of tubulin) (largest, 25nm)

15

What is lipofuscin and where is it found?

- membrane-bound orange-brown pigment, formed from peroxidation of lipids in older cells - heart and liver

16

Where are lipids and glycogen found?

- lipids found in adipocytes (fat cells) - glycogen found in cytoplasm

17

Are all the constituents of the body contained inside cells?

No, there is interstitial fluid, e.g. water + extra cellular material, e.g. tendons

18

A sample of liver from a patient who has a disease that makes them store excess iron in the liver is examined by a pathologist. Which stain can be used to stain iron blue? A - Alcian blue B - Haemotoxylin C - Iron haemotoxylin D - Perl’s stain E - Periodic acid-Schiff stain

D - Perl’s stain

19

Different cells have different lifespans. Which of the following cell types lives for the whole life of a person? A - Enterocytes (gut lining cells) B - Erythrocytes (red blood cells) C - Cardiac myocytes (heart muscle cells) D - Fibroblasts (connective tissue cells) E - Keratinocytes (skin cells)

C - Cardiac myocytes (heart muscle cells)

20

Which stain(s) have been used on this section? A - Alcian Blue B - Giemsa C - Haemotoxylin and eosin D - Periodic acid Schiff E - Perls Prussian Blue

D

21

What is the shape of these cells? A - Columnar B - Fusiform C - Polygonal D - Rounded E - Squamous

B

22

What is the lifespan of these cells? A - 5 days B - 120 days C - 400 days D - 3600 days E - 21000 days

B

23

What is chromatin? A - Mitochondrial DNA B - Nuclear DNA C - Nuclear DNA + proteins D - Nuclear RNA E - Nuclear RNA + proteins

C

24

What is the function of the arrowed organelle? A - DNA transcription B - Energy production C - Lipid degradation D - Protein degradation E - Protein synthesis

A

25

Which metabolic process takes place here? A - Fatty acid metabolism B - Lipid synthesis C - Kreb’s cycle D - Nucleotide phosphorylation E - Respiratory chain

C

26

Which organelle causes this pale area? A - Golgi body B - Lysosomes C - Mitochondria D - Rough ER E - Smooth ER

A

27

What is the function of this organelle? A - Form complex oligosaccharides B - Form membrane lipid C - Protein phosphorylation D - Proteolysis E - Synthesise protein

E

28

Which of these filaments has the smallest diameter? A - Actin B - Desmin C - Nuclear laminin D - Tubulin E - Vimentin

A

29

Which of these intermediate filaments is predominantly found in muscle? A - Cytokeratin B - Desmin C - Neurofilament protein D - Nuclear laminin E - Vimentin

B

30

What is this pigment? A - Bilirubin B - Haemosiderin C - Lipofuscin D - Melanin E - Rhodopsin

C