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Flashcards in Histopathology Deck (294)
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1

What happens when there is acute inflammation

neutrophil infiltration

2

what happens when there is chronic inflammation

Lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration

3

What processes are eosinophilic

Allergic
parasitic
hodgkins lymphoma
sometimes myeloproliferative

4

eosinophilic oesaphagitis will give what sign

feline contractions

5

what types of process involve macrophages

late acute inflammation
chronic inflammation

6

What is a the cell origin of a carcinoma

epithelial cell
squamous- keratin, intercellular bridges
adeno-mucin secreting(mucin stain), glandular

7

What stain would one use for amyloid

congo red with apple green bifringence under polarised light

8

what stain would one use for iron

prussian blue

9

what does cytokeratin stain

epithelial cells

10

4 layers of the artery wall (outer to inner)

Tunica externa
tunica media
tunica interna
basement membrane

11

4 layers of the artery wall (outer to inner)

Tunica externa
tunica media
tunica interna
basement membrane

12

Name 4 modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis

Diabetes mellitus, Hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, hypertenstion

13

~Name 3 non modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis

Age, Gender(male), Fhx

14

Name 3 non modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis

Age(40plus), Gender(male. Premenopausal women protected by hormones), Fhx

15

Give 4 features of a vulnerable plaque

clusters of inflammatory cells
thin cap
small amount of smooth muscle
lots of foam cells/lipid

16

likely contributors to rupture of a vulnerable plaque

stress - increased adrrenaline, vasocontriction to increase BP
getting up in a morning is a stressful event

17

Causes of acute pancreatitis, and how would you test for it?

I GET SMASHED
Iatrogenic
Gall stones 50%
Ethanol 30%
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune
Scorpian venom
Hypercalcaemia/hyperlipidaemia
ERCP
Drugs - thiazides

Serum amylase is raised transiently but serum lipase is much more sensitive

18

What is a pancreatic pseudocyst? how do you differentiate it from another tumour?

A pathalogical collection of fluid, rich in pancreatic enzymes and necrotic tissue lacks epithelial lining. - often associated with alcoholic pancreatitis. is a common complication of pancreatitis.

They are conected with the ducts.

It may have a riased amylase where a tumour may not and a lower viscosity where in a tumour may be raised

19

What are the common complications of acute pancreatitis?

Pseudocyst, abcess and haemorrhage(which has a 50% mortality rate)

20

What are the complications of chronic pancreatitis?

Pseudocyst, malabsorption, diabetes mellitus, cancer.

21

What are the causes of chronic pancreatitis

Haemochromatosis, alcoholism, CF, autoimmune, duct obstruction.

22

IgG4 sclerosing plasma cells

autoimmune pancreatitis

23

periductal inflammation is caused by what

obstruction.
may be due to stones or alochool

alcohol works by makind sphincter spasm and thicken secretions

24

What is seen on histology of acute and chronic pancreatitis?

Acute - Coagulative necrosiss

Chronic - fibrosis and loss of exocrine tissue. calcifications seen on xray. duct dilation with thick secretions.

Difference between them is the fibrosis which you get in chronic panc. and loss of acini and eventually endocrine cells too.

25

What is a rokitansky aschoff sinus

pseudodiverticulae of the gall bladder - associated with chronic cholecystitis

26

What is the most common type of pancreatic cancer

ductal adenocarcinoma - 85%
Rx - Smoking, diet, BMI, chronic pancreatitis, PanIN(k-ras mutation in 95%)

occurs at the head of the pancreas, appear gritty and grey - present earlier and therefore have a better prognosis.

27

Classical features of pancreatic cancer

painless jaundice.
weight loss and anorexia.
steattorhoea
diabetes

28

what is trousseaus SYNDROME

also known as trousseaus sign of malignancy.

recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis, often felt as a tender nodule.

associated with pancreas and lung cancer.

29

perilobular inflammation is caused by what?

due to acinar injury and is therefore associated with the other processes such as autoimmunity infection and drugs

30

Mucinous and serous cysts are what?

multilocular and unilocular respectively - panc ca