History and Viruses Flashcards Preview

Chiro Essentials Microbio > History and Viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in History and Viruses Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

Historic White Dudes Pt 1
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Girolama Fracastoro
Robert Hooke
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Ignazio Semmelweiss

Lazzaro Spallanzani: evidence to refure theory of spontaneous generation of life
Girolama Fracastoro: suggested transferable spores caused disease
Robert Hooke: first to see cells in thin slices of cork using crude microscope
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: inventor of microscope
Ignazio Semmelweiss: hand washing 19th C

2

Historic White Dudes Pt 2
Joseph Lister
Edward Jenner
Robert Kock
Hans Christian Gram
Louis Pasteur

Joseph Lister: surgical asepsis using carbolic acid
Edward Jenner: smallpox vaccine from cox pox in milkmaids
Robert Kock: father of microbio ID bacillus that created anthrax and 4 postulates (later card)
Hans Christian Gram: 7 step process for staining bacteria (later card)
Louis Pasteur: invented pasteurization, proposed germ theory, developed vax against rabies and anthrax

3

4 postulates of Robert Kock

1) agent must be found in all pts w/disease
2) must be able to prep a pure culture of agent
3) injected agent must cause same disease in new pt
4) must recover same org from newly infected pt

4

7 steps of gram staining

1) Crystal violet (blue) leave 1 minutes
2) wash off H2O
3) Iodine (mordant-fixer) leave 1 minutes
4) wash off H2O
5) acetone alcohol 5 s
6) counter stain w/safranin (red) for 20s
7) wash off H2O

5

Historic White Dudes Pt 3
Paul Ehrlich
Alexander Fleming
Dmitri Ivanowski
Ernst Ruska
Fredrick Griffith

Paul Ehrlich: chemicals that kill syphilis, sulfa drugs and salvarsan
Alexander Fleming: discovered penicillin
Dmitri Ivanowski: 1st to postulate existence of viruses while working w/infected tobacco plants
Ernst Ruska: 1st electron microscope to prove existence of viruses
Fredrick Griffith: Discovered transformation of non-virulent bacteria to more virulent form

6

Historic White Dudes Pt 4
Walter Reed
Jonas Salk
Albert Sabin
Stanley Prusiner
Barry Marshall

Walter Reed: mosquitoes carry yellow fever
Jonas Salk: vax from killed polio organisms
Albert Sabin: vax from attenuated live polio virus
Stanley Prusiner: coined prion for protein particle diseases (mad cow and Creutzfeld Jacob)
Barry Marshall: PUD caused by H. Pylori

7

Compare microbio of virus, bacteria

Virus: acellular, no nucleus, can have DNA or RNA, chromosomes are nucleocapsid, no ribosomes, cell wall or membrane sterols
Bacteria: prokaryote, no nucleus, has DNA and RNA, 1 chromosome 70S ribosome, peptidoglycan cell wall and no membrane sterols

8

Compare fungi and parasite cell makeup

Fungi: eukaryote, DNA and RNA, >1 chromosome, 80S ribosome, chitin cell wall, ergosterol in membrane
Parasites: Eukaryotes with DNA and RNA, >1 chromosome, 80S ribosome, no cell wall but steral membrane

9

Define:
Pathogenicity
Invasion
Virulence

Path: ability to cause disease
Inv: ability to penetrate hose defense (C. perfringens has collagenase and S. Aureus has hyaluronidase)
Virulence: ability to cause serious illness, some micro-org produce toxins harmful to humans (Clost botulinum)

10

Define, example
Nosocomial
Iatrogenic
Symbiosis
Commensalism
Parasitism
Mutualism

Nosocomial: hospital acquired infxn - C. Diff
Iatrogenic: disease caused by health pros; not wash hands
Symbiosis: two dissimilar orgs living together
Commensalism: normal bacterial flora - non path E. coli so anaerobes can grow
Parasitism: one org benefits and other harmed; intestinal worms (hookworms) cause iron def anemia
Mutualism: both org benefit; Vit K producing bacteria like E. Coli

11

Bacterial growth phases!
Lag
Log
Stationary
Death

Lag: # of cells constant in prep for growth; met activity w/o division
Log: exponential growth
Stationary: new growth matches rate where they die off as organism runs out of nutrients
Death: all nutrients used up and bacteria start to die due to buildup of waste products

12

Disease triangle

Host - human, agent - microbe, environement

13

How do viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites promote survival?

Viruses - antigenic shift
Bacteria and fungi - spores
Parasites - cysts

14

Double stranded RNA viruses

REO, Rota virus

15

RNA single stranded - sense viuses

Paramyxo (mump/measles)
Rhabdo (rabies)
Orthomyxo (HN influenza)
Filo (Ebola)
Arena (Lassa fever)
Bunya (CEE, congo fever)

16

RNA single stranded + sense non-enveloped icosahedral viruses

Calici (Norwalk, Hep E)
Polio
Echo (meningitis)
Rhino (URTI)
Coxsackie (diarrhea, HFM)
Hep A

17

RNA single stranded + sense enveloped icosahedral viruses

Flavi (hep C, yellow fever, dengue, west nice, St. Louis encephalitis)
Retro (HIV)
Toga (Rubella, WEE< VEE)

18

RNA single stranded + sense enveloped helical viruses

Corona (cold, SARS, MERS)

19

DNA single stranded viruses

Parvo B19 (5th disease)

20

DNA double stranded naked viruses

HPV
Adeno (pharyngitits, conjunctivitis)
Polyoma (JC/BC)

21

DNA double stranded enveloped viruses

HepaDNA (Hep B)
Pox (variola, molluscum contagiosum)
HSV 1-8

22

How is herpes simplex 1/2 spread?

Direct contact

23

How is HHV Type 3 spread?

Aerosol droplets - chickenpox
Direct contact - herpes zoster

24

Mono is which virus, spread by? S/S? This virus can also cause?

HHV 4 (EBV), mucousal contact (kissing)
Sore throat, fatigue, cervical lymphadenoopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, downey cells, + Paul Bunnel
Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma

25

CMV is caused by? causing?

HHV type 5
Interstitial pneumonia (immunocompromised), congenital abnormalities, brain calcification, hepatosplenomegaly

26

Roseola infantium is also known as? Caused by? S/S?

Exanthema subitum, 6th disease
HHV 6/7
rash in kids after fever

27

Slapped Cheek Syndrome is also known as? Caused by? S/S?

Erythema infectiosum/5th disease
ParvoB19
red rash on both cheeks following a fever

28

Viral conjunctivits caused? Spread? S/S?

Adeno virus aerosol droplet
Pink eye

29

Guarneri inclusion bodies in epidermis is seen with?

Smallpox

30

Mulluscm contagiosum cause? spread by? S/S?

Pox virus by direct contact
Papular lesions w/central indentation (umbilication)