Flashcards in History of Medicine + Learning Deck (47)
Where in the US was the first ambulance used?
Bellevue Hospital in NY
How recently did neanderthals begin to use fire and become centrally located?
What is rosacea protective against?
People with more neanderthal blood are more prone to developing ______.
What group first showed signs of proper medicine? When did they live?
Egyptians. 3500 BC to 300 BC
Who is Rasputin?
Would soothe the hemophiliac czarina and improve health
What language did physicians speak up until the 1970s?
What are the four humors of hippocratic medicine?
Melancholic/black bile (Earth)
Choleric/yellow bile (Fire)
When was medicine heavily associated with religion, prayers, herbs, and wine?
10,000 BC to 1500 AD
When and where did the first medical school open?
Salerno, Italy in 1025
What is the 1910 Flexner Report and what was the outcome?
A report finding that many medical schools were for-profit and deplorable. 30% of all schools closed and subsequently quality/standardization of medical education improved.
What is the Tuskegee Syphilis Research?
1932-1972: illiterate black men with syphilis were denied treatment of syphilis solely for research purposes...greatly changed the way human research was conducted.
When did modern medicine begin?
After WWII and with the advent of antibiotics
What are the types of simple learning?
What are the types of complex learning?
1. Classical conditioning (learning by association)
2. Operant conditioning (trial and error/rewards and punishment)
3. Modeling or social learning
What is habituation?
Learning from repeated stimulation.
Behavior DECREASES with repeated exposure
What is sensitization?
Behavior INCREASES with repeated exposure. e.g. pager/cell-phone ringing
What is an unconditioned response and what are some examples?
Automatic, natural, reflexive:
Food, loud noises, pain
Response: salivate, startles, approach, withdraw
What is a conditioned response and what are some examples?
Learned. Examples can be anything!
What is a clinical example of classical conditioning?
Are single pairings sufficient to created a conditioned response?
Generally no, but when something is SO traumatic or intense only a single pairing is necessary for learning - "single trial learning" (e.g. war trauma)
What is response acquisition?
Conditioned response is learned
What is extinction?
Disappearance of conditioned response
What is spontaneous recovery?
Reappearance of conditioned response after extinction
What is stimulus generalization?
Different but similar stimulus causes response
What is learned helplessness? What is it linked to?
Forced to endure aversive, painful, or unpleasant stimuli -> learns to stop trying to avoid encounters with those stimuli even if they are escapable
Become apathetic/hopless, linked to depression
What is learned helplessness an example of?
What is imprinting an example of?
What is operant conditioning?
Trial and error learning
Learning occurs as a result of the consequences (actions/feelings/thoughts) of previous behavior