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Flashcards in Pregnancy through preschool Deck (55)
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1

What age is considered infancy?

Birth to 18 months

2

What are the toddler years?

18 months - 3 years

3

What are the preschool years?

3-6 years

4

What does it mean that humans are holistic?

Humans are integrated systems, each area of development is in continual interaction with one another

5

What does it mean that development is hierarchical?

Psychological growth is a process of increasing complexity; new structures emerge out of those that came before.

6

What does it mean that development is uneven?

Growth and progress are not linear

7

What are salient issues at each stage?

Tasks at each stage of development that must be mastered to progress to the next stage.

8

What is the most protective factor to instability?

Social support

9

What is considered as premature birth?

Less than 37 weeks gestation

10

What is considered very premature birth?

Less than 32 weeks

11

What are risk factors for very premature birth?

Health problems
Mental disability
Motor retardation

12

What are the steps of the APGAR score?

Appearance
Pulse
Grimace (reflexes/cough)
Activity (muscle tone etc)
Respiration

13

What are the basic infant reflexes?

Rooting
Sucking
Palmar grasp
Moro (limbs extend when child startled)
Babinski (dorsiflexion of toes when foot is stroked)

14

Persistence of infant reflexes past ________ might indicate neurologic dysfunction

1 year

15

What percentage of women experience "baby blues"?

50-75% of women

16

What is peripartum depression?

Major depression.

Mood disorder characterized by feelings of hoplessness and helplessness/possible suicidal thoughts.

17

When is the onset of peripartum depression?

Before delivery or within the first 4 weeks after

18

What percentage of women experience peripartum depression?

10-13%

19

Do we gain control of central or peripheral features first?

Central (e.g. arm before finger)

And head before legs

20

How can social stresses (moving, birth) affect development?

Can cause regression

21

Are difficult children at the highest risk of pathophysiology?

Yes

22

What are Erik Erikson's critical periods?

Birth - 1 yr Trust vs Mistrust
1-3 yrs Autonomy vs shame/doubt
3-6 yrs Initiative vs guilt
7-11 yrs Industry vs inferiority
12-18 yrs identity vs role confusion
Young adult Intimacy vs. isolation
Adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation
Maturity Integrity vs. despair

23

What were Freud's stages of development?

Birth-1 yr Oral
1-3 yrs Anal
3-6 yrs Phallic
7-11 yrs Latency
12-18 yrs Genital

24

What are Jean Piaget's theories of development?

Birth-2 yrs Sensorimotor
2-6 yrs Preoperational (egocentric)
7-11 yrs Concrete Operational
12-adult Formal Operational

25

What are some developmental features of infancy?

Social smile (1-2 mos)
Responsiveness to mother (4-6 mos)
Stranger anxiety (9 mos)
Object permanence (1 yr)
Separation anxiety

26

Separation _____ than 6 months leads to attachment issues that cant be rehabilitated.

Greater

27

What are signs of reactive attachment disorder?

Child is withdrawn
Limited emotional responsiveness
Does not seek comfort
Unexplaied

28

What causes reactive attachment disorder?

Grossly pathological care

29

What is disinhibited social engagement and what causes?

No fear of unfamiliar adults often caused by neglect.

30

What are motor development points through infancy?

0-2 mos follows objects with eyes
2-3 mos lifts shoulders
4-6 mos Turns over and reaches for objects
7-11 mos sits unassisted and crawls
12-15 mos walks unassisted