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Flashcards in HIV/AIDS Deck (53)
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1

Which HIV is most common

HIV I

2

What does HIV stand for

Human immunodeficiency virus

3

Where do we believe that HIV originated from

Chimpanzees

4

What does AIDS stand for

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

5

Which two criteria are needed to call the patient AIDS

Opportunistic infections and T cells under 200

6

What type of virus is HIV

Retrovirus

7

Do HIV virus RNA or DNA

RNA

8

How many genes does HIV have

Nine

9

Which enzymes does HIV need to carry with it

Reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase

10

Is HIB enveloped or non-enveloped

Enveloped (has spikes)

11

How is HIV transmitted from one person to another

Sex, blood, mother to baby

12

Mother to baby transmission is also defined as

Vertical transfer

13

What are the chances of the baby contracting HIV from a mother who takes no precautions against prevention

30%

14

What are some preventative measures pregnant women can take to decrease the chances of transmitting HIV to their baby

Take antivirals, have a C-section delivery, no breast-feeding, baby takes antivirals after birth

15

What are the chances of a baby contracting HIV from a mother who does take precautions

1%

16

Which type of cell receptors does HIV target

Cell with CD4 receptors in co receptors

17

Which type of cell does HIV attack

Macrophages, Dendritic cells, helper T cells

18

What are some possible co receptors

CCR5 or CXCR4

19

After the HIV virus fuses with the cell and I'm coats, what is the first enzyme that comes into play

Reverse transcriptase takes the RNA to DNA

20

What other enzymes helps with the integration process

Integrase

21

After the virus has integrated does it go latents or remain active

Either – it can go latent or go active

22

What's the virus called when it becomes integrated

Provirus

23

What is the third enzyme that comes into play

Protease

24

What does protease do

Cuts proteins
Makes the cut so proteins can fold into a functioning protein

25

How does a HIV get out of the cell

It buds out

26

What does it mean to have a latent HIV infection

The virus is not making more of itself (not active)
Acting as a reservoir that I can become active at a later date

27

In which immune system does HIV use mechanisms to avoid the system

Both cellular and humoral systems

28

Although killer T cells can do a pretty good job at attacking the HIV virus, why can't killer T cells completely get rid of the virus

Because of the reservoirs --> HIV virus living in reservoirs do not present antigens so killer T cells don't recognize them to kill them

29

What happens to killer T cells overtime (10+ years)

Bone marrow is no longer available to keep up with the demand and helper T cells cannot activate because they have been depleted

30

What is the problem in the human world system (system in which we try and make antibodies against the HIV virus)

The binding sites are too far apart and there's no good bivalent binding and HIV's high mutation rates prevent cells from being able to keep up with the antibodies production, antibodies are produced too late