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Flashcards in Hormones Controlling Plasma Nutrients Deck (36):
1

What tissues does insulin cause glucose to go into?

Skeletal muscle, the liver and adipocytes

2

How does insulin reduce the hepatic glucose output?

By stimulating glycogen synthesis and inhibiting glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen)

3

What does insulin do the the amino acids in the plasma?

Stimulates their incorportation into proteins in the muscle and fatty acids in the liver

4

What does insulin causing increased uptake of amino acids and glucose by the liver lead to?

Conversion to fatty acids and then to lipoproteins which are released into the blood

5

Where do the lipoproteins go once released into the blood? What action causes this?

To adipocytes through lipoprotein lipase action

6

What does insulin cause glucose oxidation to?

Fatty acids which are stored as triglycerides (lypolysis prevented)

7

What are the three long term effects caused by insulin

1. Fatty acids into adipocyte store
2. Glucose into glycogen or adipocyte fat
3. Amino acids into protein or fatty acids

8

What cells have the receptors to sense glucose changes?

B-cells in the pancreatic islets

9

What happens to stimulate insulin secretion from the B-cells in the pancreatic islets

Calcium ions rush into the cell causing insulin release

10

What does oral glucose do to change insulin levels?

Effects the levels via GIP

11

What does a rise in amino acids do?

Increases release

12

What does the sympathetic nervous system do the insulin secretion?

Inhibits it

13

What does the parasympathetic nervous system do the insulin secretion?

Increase it

14

What does somatostatin do the insulin secretion?

Inhibits it

15

What does a rise in glucagon levels do the insulin secretion?

Stimulate the release

16

What are ketone bodies?

They are produced from the liver during prolonged fasting

17

What do ketone bodies do to insulin secretion?

They stimulate it

18

Where is glucagon secreted from?

alpha-cells in the islets

19

What are the four action of glucagon?

1. Adipocyte lipolysis
2. Liver gluconegogenesis
3. Liver glycogenolysis
4. Liver ketone synthesis

20

What does adipocyte lipolysis by glucagon cause?

Fatty acids and glycerol production

21

What does liver gluconeogenesis and glyconeogensis cause?

The breakdown of proteins and glycogen into glucose

22

What are ketones?

Small molecules derived from fatty acids that will enter the TCA when proteins are broken down

23

What does insulin do to glucagon release?

Inhibits it

24

What does low blood glucose levels do to glucagon release?

Stimulates it

25

What does increased amino acids concentrations do to glucagon release?

It increases it

26

Why is glucagon released when insulin is released in high concentrations of amino acids?

Glucagon counteracts the hypoglycemia during amino acid uptake

27

What do amino acids in the intestinal luman do?

Cause CCK release

28

What does CCK do?

Stimulates glucagon release

29

What does increased sympathetic stimulation do the glucagon release?

Increases it

30

What does an increase in plasma adrenaline do to glucagon release?

increases it

31

What are the 6 effects of sympathetic stimulation with adrenaline

1. Glucogen breakdown to lactate
2. Liver gluconeogensis
3. Liver glyconeolysis
4. Liver lipolysis
5. Inhibition of insulin release
6. Activation of glucagon release

32

How does cortisol affect insulin?

It antagonises it in the periphery

33

When do plasma levels of cortisol rise?

Under physiological stress

34

What is the effect of growth hormone?

1. Increases adipocyte sensitivity to adrenaline in order for it to be broken down
2. Increases liver gluconeogensis
3. Reduces the effect of insulin

35

What is the overall effect of cortisol?

Permits the rise in plasma glucose and fatty acids caused by other hormones

36

What is the overall effect of growth hormone

Increased plasma glucose and fatty acids concentrations