Flashcards in The Brain Stem Deck (30):
What is the function of the brainstem?
To act as a relay station between the brain and the spinal chord or the nerves
What two parts of the central nervous system does the brain stem connect?
The forebrain and the spinal chord
What are the three sections of the brainstem?
1. The midbrain
2. The pons
3. The medulla oblongata
2 + 3 sometimes called the hindbrain along with the cerebellum
What is the brain like in an embryo?
A tube with a rostral end and a caudal end
What does the forebrain develop from?
What does the midbrain develop from?
What does the hind brain develop from?
What are the pons and the cerebellum of the brain stem known as?
The rostral hindbrain
What is the medulla oblongata known as?
The caudal hindbrain
What is formed in the middle of the mid brain and what is this form?
A cerebral aqueduct for the spinal fluid
What does the mid brain contain?
Axons carrying information from the forebrain and the spinal chord
What are the five main parts of the midbrain?
1. The superior colliculous
2. The inferior colliculous
3. The red nucleus
4. The substantia nigra
5. The preaquaductal grey
What does the superior colliculous do?
Recieves inputs from the eye and coordinates eye movement
What does the inferior colliculous do?
Recieves information from the ear and relays it to the thalamus
What do the red nucleus and the substantia nigra do?
Involved in planning and voluntary motor control
What is the preaqueductal grey do?
Involved in sensation of pain
What does the pons do?
Relays information between the frontal motor cortex and the spinal chord through its axons and from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum
What percentage of descending axons synapses onto cells in the pons?
What are the two important groups of nerve cells in the pons?
1. The reticular formation
2. The pontine nuclei
What is the reticular formation?
Involved in conciousness/sleep
What is the pontine nuclei?
The part of the pons that relays information from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellium - is involved in motor control
Where do axons that do not terminate in the cells of the pons terminate?
In the medullary pyramids of the medulla oblongata
What kind of fibres terminate in the medullary pyramind?
Corticospinal tract fibres from the frontal cortex to the spinal chord
Name four functions of the medulla
1. Recieves sensory information and relays it to the thalmus
2. Respiratory control
3. Cardiovascular control
4. Temperature control
Where do cranial nerves arise from?
The brain stem
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
Name two cranial nerves that are purely sensory?
The olifactory (smell) and the optic (sight)
Name a cranial nerve that is purely motor?
What is the vagus cranial nerve involved in?
Parasympathetic control of the heart, lunhs and abdoninal organs