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Flashcards in The Brain Stem Deck (30):
1

What is the function of the brainstem?

To act as a relay station between the brain and the spinal chord or the nerves

2

What two parts of the central nervous system does the brain stem connect?

The forebrain and the spinal chord

3

What are the three sections of the brainstem?

1. The midbrain
2. The pons
3. The medulla oblongata
2 + 3 sometimes called the hindbrain along with the cerebellum

4

What is the brain like in an embryo?

A tube with a rostral end and a caudal end

5

What does the forebrain develop from?

The phosenC

6

What does the midbrain develop from?

The mesenC

7

What does the hind brain develop from?

The rhomberC

8

What are the pons and the cerebellum of the brain stem known as?

The rostral hindbrain

9

What is the medulla oblongata known as?

The caudal hindbrain

10

What is formed in the middle of the mid brain and what is this form?

A cerebral aqueduct for the spinal fluid

11

What does the mid brain contain?

Axons carrying information from the forebrain and the spinal chord

12

What are the five main parts of the midbrain?

1. The superior colliculous
2. The inferior colliculous
3. The red nucleus
4. The substantia nigra
5. The preaquaductal grey

13

What does the superior colliculous do?

Recieves inputs from the eye and coordinates eye movement

14

What does the inferior colliculous do?

Recieves information from the ear and relays it to the thalamus

15

What do the red nucleus and the substantia nigra do?

Involved in planning and voluntary motor control

16

What is the preaqueductal grey do?

Involved in sensation of pain

17

What does the pons do?

Relays information between the frontal motor cortex and the spinal chord through its axons and from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum

18

What percentage of descending axons synapses onto cells in the pons?

90%

19

What are the two important groups of nerve cells in the pons?

1. The reticular formation
2. The pontine nuclei

20

What is the reticular formation?

Involved in conciousness/sleep

21

What is the pontine nuclei?

The part of the pons that relays information from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellium - is involved in motor control

22

Where do axons that do not terminate in the cells of the pons terminate?

In the medullary pyramids of the medulla oblongata

23

What kind of fibres terminate in the medullary pyramind?

Corticospinal tract fibres from the frontal cortex to the spinal chord

24

Name four functions of the medulla

1. Recieves sensory information and relays it to the thalmus
2. Respiratory control
3. Cardiovascular control
4. Temperature control

25

Where do cranial nerves arise from?

The brain stem

26

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

27

Name two cranial nerves that are purely sensory?

The olifactory (smell) and the optic (sight)

28

Name a cranial nerve that is purely motor?

The trochlear

29

What is the vagus cranial nerve involved in?

Parasympathetic control of the heart, lunhs and abdoninal organs

30

What are the three regulatory roles of the brain stem?

1. Respiratory control
2. Cardiovascular control
3. Control of blood supply