Flashcards in Host-microbe interactions Deck (29):
What are the barriers to infection in the skin?
Keratinocytes - secrete antimicrobial peptides
Sebaceous glands secrete microbe-inhibiting substances
Antigen-presenting cells in the skin
What cell is mainly responsible for control of bacteria and fungi?
What cells activate phagocytes to kill microbes?
Helper T-lymphocytes (CD4+)
What do CD8+ T-cells do?
Destroy infected cells containing microbes/microbial proteins
What do B cells mature into?
Plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins
What antibody is produced first?
What antibody is produced after IgM?
What cells does HIV infect?
Causes a decline in these cells
What is hyposplenism?
Decreased spleen function
Name some 'functional' hyposplenism conditions
Steroids are associated with what type of infection?
Anti-TNFa therapies are associated with what infections?
What infections are purine analogues associated with?
Viral (herpes simplex + varicellar zoster)
Give examples of conditions that cause phagocyte deficiencies
Give examples of conditions that cause T-lymphocyte deficiencies
Primary immunodeficiency syndromes (SCID)
Give examples of conditions that cause B-cell/antibody impairment or deficiency
Primary immunodeficiency syndromes
Certain immune suppressants (rituximab)
What infections are patients with hyposplenism particularly susceptible to?
Haemophilus influenzae type B
What prophylaxis is used in patients with HIV?
What prophylaxis is given in bone marrow transplant?
Antifungal agent e.g. itraconazole
What does vaccination stimulate the production of?
What patients receive influenza vaccines?
What patients receive strep pneumoniae vaccinations?
Who receives haemophilus influenzae type B/DTP/MMR vaccines?
What cardiovascular dysfunction is seen in sepsis?
Hypotension due to widespread vasodilatation leading to a fall in peripheral resistance
Corrected with fluid resuscitation +/- inotropes/vasoconstrictors
What are some pulmonary dysfunctions in sepsis?
Endothelial injury in lung tissue (capillary leak)
Diffuse alveolar oedema
What renal issues arise in sepsis?
What liver issues arise in sepsis?
Shock liver - transaminitis +/- jaundice due to hypatocyte injury
What is transaminitis?
Grossly elevated ALT/AST