Host-microbe interactions Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Sepsis > Host-microbe interactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Host-microbe interactions Deck (29):
1

What are the barriers to infection in the skin?

Keratinocytes - secrete antimicrobial peptides

Sebaceous glands secrete microbe-inhibiting substances

Antigen-presenting cells in the skin

2

What cell is mainly responsible for control of bacteria and fungi?

Phagocytes

3

What cells activate phagocytes to kill microbes?

Helper T-lymphocytes (CD4+)

4

What do CD8+ T-cells do?

Destroy infected cells containing microbes/microbial proteins

5

What do B cells mature into?

Plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins

6

What antibody is produced first?

IgM

7

What antibody is produced after IgM?

IgG

8

What cells does HIV infect?

CD4+ T-lymphocytes

Causes a decline in these cells

9

What is hyposplenism?

Decreased spleen function

10

Name some 'functional' hyposplenism conditions

Sickle cell
Cirrhosis
Coeliac disease

11

Steroids are associated with what type of infection?

Fungal

12

Anti-TNFa therapies are associated with what infections?

Fungal (aspergillus)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

13

What infections are purine analogues associated with?

Viral (herpes simplex + varicellar zoster)

Pneumocystis jirovecii

14

Give examples of conditions that cause phagocyte deficiencies

Haematological malignancy
Cytotoxic chemotherapy

15

Give examples of conditions that cause T-lymphocyte deficiencies

HIV
Lymphoma
Primary immunodeficiency syndromes (SCID)

16

Give examples of conditions that cause B-cell/antibody impairment or deficiency

Myeloma
Primary immunodeficiency syndromes
Certain immune suppressants (rituximab)

17

What infections are patients with hyposplenism particularly susceptible to?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Nesseria meningitidis

18

What prophylaxis is used in patients with HIV?

Co-trmoxazole

19

What prophylaxis is given in bone marrow transplant?

Antifungal agent e.g. itraconazole

20

What does vaccination stimulate the production of?

IgG antibodies

21

What patients receive influenza vaccines?

Pregnant women
Chronic disease
Immunocompromise
Diabetes
Aged >65yrs

22

What patients receive strep pneumoniae vaccinations?

Chronic disease
Hyposplenism
Immunocompromise
Diabetes
Age >65yrs

23

Who receives haemophilus influenzae type B/DTP/MMR vaccines?

All kids

24

What cardiovascular dysfunction is seen in sepsis?

Hypotension due to widespread vasodilatation leading to a fall in peripheral resistance
Corrected with fluid resuscitation +/- inotropes/vasoconstrictors

25

What are some pulmonary dysfunctions in sepsis?

Endothelial injury in lung tissue (capillary leak)
Diffuse alveolar oedema
Resp failure

26

What renal issues arise in sepsis?

AKI

27

What liver issues arise in sepsis?

Shock liver - transaminitis +/- jaundice due to hypatocyte injury

28

What is transaminitis?

Grossly elevated ALT/AST

29

What causes lactic acidosis in sepsis?

Diffuse hypoperfusion
Anaerobic metabolism leads to lactic acid production -> metabolic acidosis
Acidosis worsens cardiovascular stability