Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Sepsis > Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (46):
1

What are the 4 steps of organism invasion?

1. Introduction
2. Establishment
3. Growth and spread
4. Impact

2

What are the 6 steps of pathogenic infection?

Exposure
Adhesion
Invasion
Colonization
Toxicity
Tissue damage + disease

3

What is a pathogen?

Any microorganism that has the potential to cause disease

4

Define sepsis?

A life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection

5

What immune system component responds to bacteria?

Phagocytes
Antibody and B lymphocytes
Complement

6

What immune system component responds to viruses?

T lymphocytes
Antibody and B lymphocytes

7

What immune system component responds to fungi?

Phagocytes
T lymphocytes
Eosinophils

8

What immune system component responds to protozoa?

T lymphocytes
Eosinophils

9

What immune system component responds to worms?

Eosinophils
Mast cells

10

Describe the period of communicability

Invasion
Incubation
(sub-clinical infection)
Prodromal period (early symptoms)
Ilness period
Convalescent period

11

What is alpha haemolysis?

Partial haemolysis

12

What is beta haemolysis?

Complete haemolysis

13

What is gamma haemolysis?

No haemolysis

14

What are some examples of aerobic organisms?

Staphylococci
Streptococci
Enterococci
Coliforms

15

What is the classification of E.coli?
Name some other bacteria in this group

Gram -ve bacilli
Lactose +
Fast fermenter

Enterobacter
Klebsiella

16

What pathogens are commonly found in the mouth?

Strep viridans
Neisseria
Anaerobes

Candida
Staphylococci

17

What pathogens are found in the stomach/duodenum?

Usually sterile

18

Normal flora of the jejunum

Coliforms and anaerobes

19

Normal flora of the colon

Coliforms
Anaerobes
Enterococcus faecalis

20

What are coliforms

Gram -ve rods e.g. E.coli

21

What is the drug of choice for sepsis and coliforms?

Gentamicin
Aztreonam if gentamicin contraindications
Co-trimoxazole for oral switch

22

What is the drug of choice for sepsis and anaerobes?

Metronidazole

23

What is the drug of choice for sepsis and gram +ve cocci?

Amoxicillin
Co-trimoxazole if amox contraindications

Co-trimox for oral switch

24

Name a gram +ve cocci

Enterococci

25

What antibiotic can be used to kill enterococci?

Vancomycin

26

What is the treatment for a severe C.diff infection?

Vancomycin +/- metronidazole

27

What is the treatment for peritonitis/biliary tract/intra-abdominal infection?

IV amox, met + gent

28

What is the treatment for proven spontaneous bacterial periotonitis?

Severe - pip/taz

Mild - co-trimox

29

What is the classification of haemophilus influenzae?

Gram -ve coccobacillus

30

What does haemophilus influenzae grow on?

Chocolate agar media

31

Name some atypical pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Coxiella burnetii
Chlamydophila psittaci
Legionella

32

What do most atypical pneumonias respond to?

Doxycycline

33

What pneumonia can people get from sheep and goats?

Coxiella burnetii

34

Psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis are common in what pet owners?

Bird owners

35

How can atypicals be diagnosed?

Serology
PCR

36

How are viruses tested?

PCR

37

What test would you do if you suspected legionella?

Urine legionella antigen

38

What agar does legionella grow on?

BCYE

39

What top bottle should you use for urine culture in the community?

Red top

40

What top vacutainer do you use for serology of atypicals?

Gold top

41

Name an aminoglycoside

Gentamicin

42

What class of drugs does gentamicin belong to?

Aminoglycosides

43

Name a quinolone

Levofloxacin

44

What class of drugs does ciprofloxacin belong to?

Quinolones

45

What should be monitored when prescribing gentamicin?

Renal function

46

What signs/symptoms might a patient who has sepsis have?

V high or low temp
Uncontrolled shivering
Confusion
Cold/blotchy hands/feet
Not passing as much urine as normal