What are some accelerating factors?
TNCs Transport Computers/Internet/Tech. International Organisations Free Trade Financial Deregulation Media
How have TNC’s accelerated globalisation?
Economic and cultural globalisation in developing countries - where products are made - and developed - where they are consumed.
How has transport accelerated globalisation?
1940 Containerised shipping growth, now 200 mil. container movements per year
1960 Boeing 747, international travel more commonplace.
Cheap airlines - EasyJet/Ryanair - meaning air travel provided to masses and not just for the rich
How has Computers/Internet/Tech accelerated globalisation?
CAD & CAM has made manufacturing flexible so there is less reliance on human labour allowing footloose firms to increase in number.
Satellite and fibre optic communications have led to growth and improvement of mobile phone and internet communications.
How have International Organisations accelerated globalisation?
1945 foundation of IMF & World Bank who channel loans from richest nations to those struggling if they agree to run free market economies so outside TNCs can invest. However carry out SAPSs which can be controversial.
WTO/NGO’s connect people and places through flows of aid and debt relief
Major stock market growth so more of companies shares are traded and more wealth is generated.
Markets rise with more people with disposable income and consumerism increase.
How has Free Trade accelerated globalisation?
Removing tariffs and quotas promotes trade for developing and developed = more links
How has Financial deregulation accelerated globalisation?
Less gov. control on banks, currencies, interest rates and companies have all decreased making investment easier and profits higher.
How has the media accelerated globalisation?
Global media corporations present a similar world view of the news contributing to sense of a connected world.
What are SAPs?
Structural Adjustment Programmes: Strict conditions imposed on countries receiving loans from the IMF and the World Bank as they may have to cut back on healthcare, education, sanitation and housing programmes.
What are footloose firms?
Can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport.
What is CAD & CAM?
Computer aided design and manufacturing
What is evidence for past globalisation in India?