Flashcards in HPL PRT03 actual Deck (30)
Decision-making is a concept that represents?
a. An automatic process of selection from among the various solutions to a given problem
b. A spontaneous act of seeking the most effective solution in a given situation when faced with a defined problem
c. A voluntary and conscious process of selection, from among possible solutions, to a given problem Correct
d. An automated or automation-like act of applying defined procedures
From the list of effects of stress on performance:
(1) It always reduces performance
(2) Optimum performance is obtained with optimum arousal.
(3) Excessive stress weakens performance.
(4) Insufficient stress weakens performance.
Which combination of effects is correct?
a. 1, 3, 4
b. 1, 2, 4
c. 2, 3, 4 Correct
d. 1, 2, 3
In the short-term-memory, information is stored for approximately?
a. A couple of days
b. 10 - 15 seconds Correct
c. 5 minutes
d. 1 hour
Which of the following statements best characterise a self-centred or laisser-faire cockpit?
a. The captain always takes charge of a situation
b. While decreasing communication, independence of each member improves the crew's synergy
c. Due to the captain remaining passive, each one does his own thing while at the same time assuming that everyone is aware of what is being done or what is going on Correct
d. The egocentric personality of the captain often leads to a synergetic cockpit
When decision-making, important information processing steps are:
1. Cue seeking
2. Situation assessment
3. Risk assessment
4. Options, alternative courses of action
a. 1, 3
c. 1, 2, 3, 4 Correct
d. 1, 2, 4
The sleep cycles repeat during the course of a night's sleep.
(1) Each succeeding cycle contains a greater amount of REM sleep.
(2) REM sleep is the stage that refreshes the brain
a. 1 and 2 are both not correct
b. 1 and 2 are both correct Correct
c. 1 is correct, 2 is not correct
d. 1 is not correct, 2 is correct
What is the main adverse effect of expectations in the perception mechanism?
a. The unconscious mechanism of attention leads to focus on all relevant information
b. The attention area is enlarged, thus it will lead to an uncertainty in regard to necessary decisions
c. Expectations often guide the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are neglected Correct
d. They always lead to routine errors
Having a serious cold, you are going to fly.
What can you expect ?
d. Pain in the sinuses
A fatigued pilot...?
a. Will most probably show signs of increased irritability Correct
b. Is acting similar as when encountering a state of depression
c. Will get pain in the joints
d. Considerably increases the ability to concentrate
Whilst flying a co-ordinated turn, most of your activity is...?
a. Rule based behaviour
b. Skill based behaviour Correct
c. Coping behaviour
d. Knowledge based behaviour
What are the main factors likely to bring on reduced or low vigilance (hypovigilance)?
1. Low motivation
2. Tiredness, the need for sleep
3. High workload
4. Use of checklists
a. 1, 2, 3 Correct
b. 2, 4
c. 1, 3
d. 3, 4
The quality of learning?
a. Is independent of age
b. Is promoted by feedback on the value of one's own performance Correct
c. Depends on long-term memory capacity
d. Is independent of the level of motivation
Decision-making can be influenced by the following factors:
1. People tend to conform to opinions expressed by a majority within the group they belong to
2. People tend to seek a negative outcome of the perceived situation
3. People tend more easily to select data that meets expectations
4. People hardly ever base decisions on their personal preferences but rather on rational information
a. 2, 3
b. 1, 4
c. 2, 4
d. 1, 3
What errors are associated with skill-based behaviour?
a. Action Slip, and error of commission
b. Action Slip, and environmental capture Correct
c. Confirmation Bias, error of commission
d. Action Slip, and confirmation Bias
Which mode of behaviour is the best to adopt in the management of conflict?
a. Parent mode
b. Child mode
c. Adult mode Correct
d. Critical mode
Select from the following list the main working concepts in automation with respect to flight safety:
i. Systems should be designed to be error resistant and should be easy to understand
ii. Two well trained pilots are required to monitor the automatics and each other, and the automatics should monitor the actions of both pilots
iii. Careful attention should be taken in the design of automated systems so that they are clear in meaning and as reliable as possible
iv. Systems should be designed to recognise the fallibility of the pilot and should be able to cancel any procedure the pilot is following
a. All of the above
b. I, II, and III Correct
c. II, III and IV
d. I, III and IV
Two of the most important characteristics of a PIC are:
1.Dominant and task oriented behaviour
3.Mastery of communication skills
a. 2 and 4
b. 2 and 3 Correct
c. 1 and 4
d. 1 and 3
The first stage in the information process is?
a. Sensory stimulation Correct
c. Selective attention
d. The recognition of information
The maximum number of unrelated items that can be stored in working memory is?
b. 7 +/-2 items Correct
c. Approximately 3 items
d. Approximately 12 items
What precautions should be taken to reduce the occurrence of the most common cause of acute crew incapacitation in flight ?
a. Avoid eating partially cooked food, all seafood, and avoid drinking water.
b. Avoid eating partially cooked or reheated food, avoid drinking water that may be contaminated, eat a different meal to the other pilot. Correct
c. Never eat seafood or reheated food, avoid drinking water, and eat at a different time to the other pilot.
d. Avoid eating reheated or partially cooked food, avoid drinking water and eat a different meal to the other pilot.
For increased sleep hygiene, what steps should be taken?
a. Plenty of coffee to increase the rate of onset of hypovigilance
b. Complete a cross-word to relax body and mind
c. Close the curtains and relax Correct
d. Plenty of strenuous exercise to reduce energy levels
Situational awareness may well be inhibited by the introduction of:
a. Computer generated check-lists
b. "Intelligent" flight decks Correct
c. Pre-recorded voice warnings
d. Moving tape displays
One negative aspect of the highly automated cockpit results in?
a. Pilots disregarding the automatic equipment
b. Constantly high crew overload with regard to the monitoring tasks
c. Less experienced crews because of more transparent system details
d. Complacency among the crewmembers
a. Is more important than verbal communication in the cockpit
b. Is always used intentionally
c. Should be avoided by all means in the cockpit
d. Supports verbal communication
How many stages are there in a sleep cycle?
a. 3 stages plus REM
b. 4 stages plus REM Correct
c. 3 stages including REM
d. 4 stages including REM
What is considered to be the ideal in terms of temperature and humidity?
a. Temperature 20 C Humidity (RH)20 - 40 %
b. Temperature 15 C Humidity (RH)10 - 30%
c. Temperature 20 C Humidity (RH)40 - 60 % Correct
d. Temperature 15 C Humidity (RH)40 - 60 %
What are the two different types of illusion?
a. Visual and occulargravic
b. Visual and somatogyral
c. Vestibular and occulargravic
d. Vestibular and visual
According to Rasmussen's SRK model, errors are of the following type(s) in skill-based control mode?
a. Creative errors
b. Routine errors Correct
c. Knowledge errors
d. Handling errors
Select the correct statement:
a. If the runway is narrower than the normal one which the pilot is accustomed to, the pilot will fly a higher than normal approach with the possibility of landing long
b. If the runway is narrower than the normal one which the pilot is accustomed to, the pilot will fly a lower than normal approach with the possibility of landing short Correct
c. If the runway is narrower than the normal one which the pilot is accustomed to, the pilot will fly a higher approach than normal with the possibility of landing short
d. If the runway is narrower than the normal one that the pilot is accustomed to, the pilot will fly a lower approach than normal with the possibility of landing long