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Flashcards in Human performance pt 2 Deck (222)
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1

The sleep cycles repeat during the course of a night’s sleep.

1. Each succeeding cycle contains a greater amount of REM-sleep

2. Frequent interruption of the REM-sleep can harm a human being in the long run



Both Correct

2

During paradoxical sleep:

a) rapid eye movements can be observed
b) the tone of the muscles is similar to that in the waking state
c) respiration is very regular
d) the rhythm of the heart is very regular

a) rapid eye movements can be observed

3

The duration of a period of sleep is governed primarily by:

a) the point within your circadian rhythm at which you try to sleep
b) the duration of your previous sleep
c) the amount of time you have been awake
d) the number of points you have in your credit/deficit system

) the point within your circadian rhythm at which you try to sleep

4

A fatigued pilot:

a) will show signs of increased irritability
b) is acting similar as when encountering a state of depression

a) will show signs of increased irritability

5

Which of the following statements concerning tiredness is correct?

a) Tiredness is a subjective sensation which is reflected in hypovigilance or in poor management of intellectual capabilities
b) Tiredness is the consequence of a diminution of performance
c) Tiredness is always the result of an intellectual overload
d) Tiredness is an objective psychophysiological symptom of a reduction in attention capabilities

a) Tiredness is a subjective sensation which is reflected in hypovigilance or in poor management of intellectual capabilities

6

REM-sleep becomes shorter with any repeated sleep cycle during the night

2. REM-sleep is more important for the regeneration of mental and physical functions than all the other sleep stages are.

1 false, 2 correct

7

What are the main effects of a lack of sleep on performance?

a) It increases fatigue, reduces concentration and increases the risk of sensory illusions and mood disorders
b) It increases fatigue and concentration difficulties, but facilitates stress management by muscular relaxation
c) It causes muscular spasms
d) It reduces concentration and fatigue only with sleep loss greater than 48 hours

a) It increases fatigue, reduces concentration and increases the risk of sensory illusions and mood disorders

8

What seems to be the main role of orthodox sleep?

a) It essentially allows for physical recovery
b) it includes physical and mental recuperation associated with fatigue
c) Its main role is associated with activities of memory activities and restoration of attention capabilities
d) Via physical recovery, it is characterised by an alternation of dream phases and paradoxicalphases

a) It essentially allows for physical recovery

9

Which of the following list are symptoms of fatigue?

1. Diminished accommodation
2. Slowed reactions
3. Long-term memory access problems
4. Being over talkative
5. Diminished motor skills


1,2,3,5 correct

The two types of fatigue are: "Chronic, short-term and acute"

Fatigue falls into two broad categories: (1) acute fatigue (short-term), and (2) chronic fatigue (long-term).

Chronic fatigue, extending over a long period of time, usually has psychological roots. (An underlying disease is sometimes responsible, however). Continuous stain on your job, for example, can produce chronic fatigue. You may experience this condition in the form of weakness, tiredness, palpitations of the heart, breathlessness, headaches, or irritability. Sometimes chronic fatigue even creates stomach or intestinal problems and generalized aches and pains throughout the body. When the condition becomes serious enough, it can lead to emotional illness. If you suspect that you are suffering from chronic fatigue, consult your doctor. Self-help cures are rare. Above all, don't fly!

Acute fatigue, on the other hand, is short-lived and is a normal occurrence in everyday living. It is the kind of tiredness you feel after a period of strenuous effort, excitement, or lack of sleep. Rest after exertion and 8 hours of sound sleep ordinarily cures this condition.

Source: (http://www.pilotfriend.com/aeromed/medical/fatigue.htm)

10

Which statement about acute or chronic fatigue is incorrect?

a) Acute fatigue generally has psychological roots
b) Chronic fatigue may be caused by inadequate recuperation from periods of acute fatigue
c) Chronic fatigue may lead to a person being totally apathetic and indifferent to what goes on around them
d) Acute fatigue is felt after a period of significant exertion or emotional excitement


a) Acute fatigue generally has psychological roots

11

Orientation in flight is accomplished by:

1. eyes
2. utriculus and sacculus
3. semi-circular canals
4. seat-of-the-pants-sense

All Correct

12

What can a pilot do to avoid Flicker vertigo when flying in the clouds?

a) Switch strobe-lights off
b) Fly straight and level and avoid head movements

a) Switch strobe-lights off

13

Tuned resonance of body parts, distressing the individual, can be caused by:

a) vibrations from 1 to 100 Hz
b) vibrations from 16 Hz to 18 kHz

a) vibrations from 1 to 100 Hz

14

How can a pilot overcome a vertigo, encountered during a real or simulated instrument flight?

1. Establish and maintain an effective instrument cross check
2. Always believe the instruments; never trust your sense of feeling
3. Ignore arising illusions

4. Move the head sidewards and back and forth to shake-off illusions


1,2,3 Correct

15

The proprioceptors do not orient an individual to his/her surroundings, but informs him/her of:

a) the relative motion and relative position of his body parts
b) the condition in the body itself

a) the relative motion and relative position of his body parts

16

Once we have constructed a mental model we tend:

a) to give undue weight to information that confirms the model
b) to alter that model unnecessarily frequently
c) to give equal weight to contradicting and confirming information
d) to give undue weight to information that contradicts the model

a) to give undue weight to information that confirms the model

17

Perceptual conflicts between the vestibular and visual systems are:

1. classic and resistant when flying in IMC
2. sensed via impressions of rotation
3. sensed via distorted impressions of the attitude of the aircraft
4. considerable during prolonged shallow turns under IMC



All correct

18

Which of the following provides the basis of all perceptions?

a) The intensity of the stimuli
b) The separation of figure and background
c) The aural or visual significance attributed in short term memory
d) The aural or visual significance attributed in long term memory

a) The intensity of the stimuli

19

What is the main adverse effect of expectations in the perception mechanism?

a) Expectations often guide the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are neglected
b) They always lead to routine errors
c) The unconscious mechanism of attention leads to focus on all relevant information
d) The attention area is enlarged, thus it will lead to an uncertainty in regard to necessary decisions

a) Expectations often guide the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are neglected

20

Conscious perception:

a) is a mental process involving experience and expectations
b) relates to the correct recognition of colours
c) relies upon the development of intuition
d) involves the transfer of information from the receptor to the brain only

a) is a mental process involving experience and expectations

21

Which of the following illusions are brought about by conflicts between the visual system and the vestibular system?

1. Illusions concerning the attitude of the aircraft
2. Auto-kinetic illusion (fixed point viewed as moving)
3. Illusions when estimating the size and distance of objects
4. Illusions of rotation

1 and 4 Correct

22

What should a pilot do if he has no information about the dimensions of the runway and the condition of the terrain underneath the approach? He should:

a) make an instrument approach and be aware of the illusory effects that can be induced
b) be aware that approaches over down-sloping terrain will make him believe that he is higher than actual

a) make an instrument approach and be aware of the illusory effects that can be induced

23

The Leans or Somatogyral illusion can be caused by:

a) going into a turn to quickly
b) bunting the aircraft
c) prolonging a turn
d) a carrier take-off

c) prolonging a turn

24

What is the name for the sensation of rotation occurring during flight and which is caused by multiple irritation of several semi-circular canals at the same time?

a) Pilot's vertigo
b) Seat-of-the-Pants illusions
c) Graveyard spin

a) Pilot's vertigo

25

A pilot, trying to pick up a fallen object from the cockpit floor during a tight turn, experiences:

a) coriolis illusion
b) pressure vertigo

a) coriolis illusion

26

Dizziness and tumbling sensations, when making head movements in a tight turn, are symptoms of:

a) Pilot's vertigo
b) Flicker-vertigo
c) Oculogravic illusion

a) Pilot's vertigo

27

Approaches at night without visual references on the ground and no landing aids (eg. VASIs) can make the pilot believe of being:

a) higher than actual altitude with the risk of overshooting
b) higher than actual altitude with the risk of landing short (ducking under)

Illusion of being "High" will make you "Low".

b) higher than actual altitude with the risk of landing short (ducking under)

28

The area in front of a threshold descends towards the threshold. Possible danger is:

a) approach is lower than normal and may result in a short landing
b) to drop far below the glide path
c) approach is higher than normal and may result in a long landing

c) approach is higher than normal and may result in a long landing

29

To prevent the auto-kinetic phenomena, the following can be done:

a) look out for additional references inside and/or outside the cockpit using peripheral vision also
b) look sideways to the source of light for better fixation

a) look out for additional references inside and/or outside the cockpit using peripheral vision also

30

Disorientation is more likely to occur when the pilot is:

1. flying in IMC

2. frequently changing between inside and outside references


3. flying from IMC into VMC


4. having a cold

1,2,4 Correct