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Flashcards in Human performance Deck (185)
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1

Which of the following drawbacks are associated with automation?
1. Reduced competence in manually controlling the aircraft
2. Increased likelihood of slips while programming automatic systems

3. Difficulties in adapting to the use of a sidestick
4. General decrease in technical reliability

1,2 Correct

2

If man is compared with a computer, it can be said that man:
a) has more effective means of action (output) and is above all capable of considerably synergy
b) has less effective means of data collection that the computer
c) has less effective means of action (output) than the computer
d) is relatively limited compared with a computer, that means of data collection or means of action are referred to

a) has more effective means of action (output) and is above all capable of considerably synergy

3

What would be the priority aim in the design of man-machine interfaces and in the creation of their application procedures for combating problems associated with human error?

a) To reduce the risks of the appearance or non-detection of errors entailing serious consequences
b) To eliminate the risk of latent errors occurring
c) To cater systematically for the consequences of errors in order to analyse their nature and modify ergonomic parameters
d) To put in place redundant alarm systems

a) To reduce the risks of the appearance or non-detection of errors entailing serious consequences

4

A high degree of cockpit automation may alter the traditional tasks of the pilots in a way, that:
a) the attention of the cockpit crew will become reduced with the consequences of being out of the loop
b) it is guaranteed that the crew maintains always situational awareness
c) Crew Co-ordination can be neglected on long haul flights without compromising safety
d) the crew can pay more attention to solve the problem in an abnormal situation without monitoring the automatic systems

a) the attention of the cockpit crew will become reduced with the consequences of being out of the loop

5

The use of modern technology applied to glass-cockpit aircraft has:

a) facilitated feedback from the machine via more concise data for communication on the flight deck
b) considerably improved all the communication facilities of the crew
c) reduced the scope for non-verbal communication in inter-personal relations
d) improved man-machine communication as a result of flight sensations

a) facilitated feedback from the machine via more concise data for communication on the flight deck

6

A system is all the more reliable if it offers good detectability. The latter is the result of:
1. Tolerance of the various systems to errors
2. The sum of the automatic monitoring, detection and warning facilities
3. The reliability of the Man-Man and Man-Machine links
4. The alerting capability of the Man-Machine interface

2,4 correct

7

List advantages of automation:

a) Reduced workload, more time to monitor systems, and when managed properly better situational awareness
b) Easy to learn
c) Automation will generally help pilots to make last minute changes
d) All of the above are correct

a) Reduced workload, more time to monitor systems, and when managed properly better situational awareness

8

List automation disadvantages:

a) It can be difficult to make last minute changes
b) It can be difficult to understand all the modes
c) Flight crew can lose situational awareness if they are complacent
d) All of the above are correct

d) All of the above are correct

9

Define automation complacency:

a) Boredom and automation complacency may occur because some portions of flights are so completely automated, that pilots are lulled into inattention and are either bored or complaced

b) Automation complacency may occur because some flights are so completely automated, that pilots get tired from passive scanning, this can cause automation fatigue

Define automation complacency:

a) Boredom and automation complacency may occur because some portions of flights are so completely automated, that pilots are lulled into inattention and are either bored or complaced

10

What is automation mode awareness?
a) It refers to what mode of awareness a crew has during automated flight
b) Examples of mode awareness include vigilance and situational awareness
c) Being aware of the active mode(s) and understanding the corresponding actions and responses is necessary for proper use of the automated system
d) A and B are correct

c) Being aware of the active mode(s) and understanding the corresponding actions and responses is necessary for proper use of the automated system

11

Which statement about automation is correct?

1. Pilots that always use autopilots can become less confident in their own basic airmanship skills
2. High performing crews thoroughly discuss FMS and automation usage ahead of automation set up and especially before arrival
3. The new generation of automated aircraft have generally demonstrated an improved safety record


All correct

12

The level of automation helps to conserve resources. On the other hand, it may result in:

a) routine errors (slips)
b) behavioural errors
c) decision-making errors
d) errors in selecting an appropriate plan of action

a) routine errors (slips)

13

Which of the following responses lists most of the common hazardous thought patterns (attitudes) for pilots to develop?

a) Anti-authority, impulsiveness, invulnerability, resignation, machismo complex
b) Resignation, confidence, inattention
c) Invulnerability, under-confidence, avoidance of making decisions, lack of situational awareness
d) Machismo (machoism) complex, resignation, confidence, self-criticism

a) Anti-authority, impulsiveness, invulnerability, resignation, machismo complex

14

Which behaviour does most likely promote a constructive solution of interpersonal conflicts?

a) Active listening
b) Responding with counter-arguments
c) Staying to their own point of view
d) Giving up their own point of view

a) Active listening

15

What may become the main risk of a Laissez-faire cockpit?

a) Inversion of authority
b) Lack of communication
c) Appearance of aggressiveness
d) Disengagement of the co-pilot

Laissez-Faire = Cares little for the flight or the crew.

a) Inversion of authority

16

A non-synergetic cockpit:

a) is characterised by withdrawn crew members and unclear communication
b) always results from an over-relaxed atmosphere

a) is characterised by withdrawn crew members and unclear communication

17

What are the most frequent results of a self-centred captain on the flight deck?

a) In a two-pilot flight deck, the co-pilot is ignored and may react by disengaging, showing delayed responses or demonstrate the scapegoat effect
b) A major risk of authority inversion if the co-pilot is in-assertive

a) In a two-pilot flight deck, the co-pilot is ignored and may react by disengaging, showing delayed responses or demonstrate the scapegoat effect

18

How do you understand the statement "one cannot communicate"?

a) Being silent as well as inactive are non-verbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning
b) The statement above is a misprint
c) Each situation requires communication
d) You cannot influence your own communication

a) Being silent as well as inactive are non-verbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning

19

During the cruising phase of a short-haul flight the captain starts to smoke a cigarette in the cockpit. The flying co-pilot asks him to stop smoking because he is a non-smoker. The captain tells him: This is your problem, and continues smoking. What should the co-pilot do?

a) He should not further discuss this issue but should come back to this conflict during the debriefing
b) He should report the chief pilot about this behaviour of the captain

a) He should not further discuss this issue but should come back to this conflict during the debriefing

20

During the preparational work in the cockpit the captain notices that his co-pilot on the one hand is rather inexperienced and insecure but on the other hand highly motivated. Which kind of leadership behaviour most likely is inappropriate?

a) The captain lets the co-pilot fly and observes his behaviour without any comments
b) The captain flies the first leg by himself and explains each action to the co-pilot in order to keep him informed about his decisions
c) The captain lets the co-pilot fly and gives him detailed instructions what to do
d) The captain lets the co-pilot fly and encourages him frankly to ask for any support that is needed

a) The captain lets the co-pilot fly and observes his behaviour without any comments

21

What are typical consequences of conflicts between crew members?

1. The quality of work performance decreases as a result of the impoverishment of communications
2. A decrease in the quality of communications
4. A decrease in the usage of available resources on the flight deck

3. In the case of a crew made up of experts, conflicts only result in a deterioration in relations between the individuals

1,2,4 correct

22

What is characterised by a Laissez-faire cockpit?

a) A passive approach by the captain allows decisions, choices and actions by other crew members
b) The captain's authority rules all the actions or decisions associated with the situation
c) The high level of independence granted to each member by the captain quickly leads to tension between the various crew members
d) Each member carries out actions and makes choices without explicitly informing the other members about them


a) A passive approach by the captain allows decisions, choices and actions by other crew members

23

What are the most frequent and the least appropriate reactions on the part of a co-pilot when faced with a highly authoritarian captain?
1. Self-assertion
2. A scapegoat feeling
3. Delayed reactions to observed discrepancies
4. Disengagement




2,3,4 correct

24

The three types of Authority Gradient Cockpits are:

a) Autocratic, Laisser-Faire and Synergistic
b) Authoritative, Laisser-Faire and Synergistic

a) Autocratic, Laisser-Faire and Synergistic

25

Situations particularly vulnerable to "reversion to an earlier behaviour pattern" are:

1. when concentration on a particular task is relaxed


2. when situations are characterised by medium workload

3. when situations are characterised by stress

1,3 correct

26

Self-concept is how you see yourself.

a) All of us have a mental blueprint or picture of ourselves. This blueprint is composed of ideas, attitudes, values and commitments, which are influenced by our past experiences, our successes and failures, our triumphs and our humiliations.

b) It is part of our personality formed in part by way others reacted to us especially during our formative years.


Both correct

27

Contrary to a person's personality, attitudes:

a) are the product of personal disposition and past experience with reference to an object or a situation
b) are non-evolutive adaptation procedures regardless of the result of the actions associated with them
c) form part of personality and that, as a result, they cannot be changed in an adult
d) are essentially driving forces behind changes in personality

a) are the product of personal disposition and past experience with reference to an object or a situation

28

Define relationship oriented behaviour:

a) The first consideration is the feelings of others
b) The first consideration is to meet personal needs
c) First considerations are given to tasks related to the final goal
d) Low relationship oriented traits combined with low task oriented traits

a) The first consideration is the feelings of others

29

Describe task oriented behaviour:

a) The first consideration is given to the task or goal in the decision making process
b) A person who is high task oriented and low relationship oriented is considered to have an aggressive style of behaviour

c) The first consideration is to solve the tasks and duties of others


Both a and b are correct

30

What is peer pressure?

a) Self-imposed pressure by trying to live up to others performance or expectation
b) A situation where an individual is pressured to perceive (peer-pressured) to understand a complicated task

a) Self-imposed pressure by trying to live up to others performance or expectation