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Flashcards in Human Ecology Deck (149):
1

How many humans are born every second in comparison to the number that die every second?

4 humans born and 2 die (Gain 2.3 humans every second)

2

Describe the variables in the equation G=ΔN/Δt and describe what the equation measures

G=Rate of change in the population size
ΔN= the change in the number of individuals
Δt= interval of time

3

Describe variables in G=rN

G= Rate of change in population size
N=Number of individuals in population
r=per capita rate of increase = birth rate – death rate

4

Specifically discuss r and what happens to population size when r> or r

r= per capita rate of increase
r>0 means that population is increasing
r=0 population size is constant
r

5

What is K and what happens to G when K is ,= N?

K=carrying capacity (number of individuals earth can sustain)

When K=N: Growth rate is zero
When K>N: Growth rate is positive
When K

6

What two types of factors influence population growth in nature?

1) Density Independent Factors
2)Density Dependent Factors

7

Describe birth rate:

Number of deaths per year per person

8

Total Fertility Rate

number of children born on average during a woman’s reproductive life

9

Doubling time:

Time it takes population to double in size

10

What percent of the worlds population and what percent of the world population growth do developing countries represent?

80%, 90%

11

What four factors determine total fertility rate?

Culture
Economic
Demographic
Political

12

What is the demographic transition model?

model of economic and cultural change to explain declining death rates, declining birth rates, and rising life expectancies in as become industrialized

13

What are the four transition stages in the demographic transition model?

1) Pre-Industrial Stage
2)Transitional Stage
3) Industrial Stage
4)Post Industrial Stage

14

What is happening to birth and death rates in Pre-Industrial stage?

Both rates are very high

15

What is happening to birth and death rates in transitional stage?

Birth rate is constant put death rate is decreasing due to food production and increased medical access

16

What is happening to birth and death rates in Industrial stage?

Death rates hit a constant level while birth rates begin to decline due to increased opportunity for woman and increased access to birth control

17

What is happening to birth and death rates in post Industrial stage?

Birth rates and death rates are low

18

What is the optimist economist view of human population growth?

world population growth will stabilize this century due to demographic transitions in developing countries.

19

Pessimist view of human population growth?

eloping countries of the world are too environmentally and/or politically unstable, and will not experience a demographic transition. Aid to developing countries will decrease death rates but not birth rates.

20

Technologist View

Improving in technology and investing in technology TODAY will outpace demands of increasing populatioins

21

Social Justice View

Population is a SYMPTOM not a problem. We must redistribute resources.

22

Ecologist View

Population growth is the problem. The earth has a carrying capacity. If developing countries proceed through the demographic transition the same way developed countries have, per capita resource consumption will put us over the carrying capacity.

23

What are two consequences of a growing population like that of the baby boom era?

Not enough people paying into social security to support the population when they get old AND medicare/medicaid increases 7x

24

China's One Child Policy

They said a legal married age for males and females, contraceptives are free, and people are limited to having one child (except some circumstances Ex: twins)

25

What is the 4-2-1 problem in china?

Each child has 2 parents and four grandparents

26

What is the sex ratio problem in china?

There are 1.2 males for every female do to selective abortion and infanticide of females

27

How do we ensure the high trajectory scenario is not the path taken?

1) educate women
2)Family Planning
3) increased access to healthcare
4)Providing contraception

28

How did Bangladesh reduce TFR?

using education and investing in family planning!!

29

What is the Easter Island Metaphor?

Deforestation, degradation of topsoil, and over-harvesting of animal explains the collapse of this civilization. THEY EXCEEDED CARRYING CAPACITY

30

Carrying Capacity

The number of people a geographical area can support before people need more resources than are available

31

Ecological Footprint

Basically measures how much we consume (demand of human activity on biosphere)

32

Biocapacity

The amount of area (land) available to generate resources and absorb waste

33

Global Hectares (gha)

A unit weighted based on ability of land to produce resources (need more pastures than crops to make the same amount of resources so they have different hectares) Cropland has larger gha

34

What are the 6 assumptions for ecological footprint:

1) Amount of resources used and the waste generated can be quantified and tracked
2) Resource/waste flow measured by productivity area necessary to MAKE them
3) Global hectares are accurate
4)Each hectare represents a single use of a particular resource
5) Human demand (ecological footprint) can be compared to biocapacity in hectares
6)Area demanded can exceed area supplied if demand on an ecosystem exceeds that ecosystems regenerative capacity.

35

Ecological Footprint Equation:

EF=demand for product(P)/ National Yield of product (Y) * the conversion to hectares

36

Biocapacity Equation:

BC= A(area available) X YF (yield factor a ratio of national to world average yields) X EQF (global hectares per hectare)

37

What is the equation for Ecological Footprint of Consumption?

EFc=EFp+EFi-EFe
C: consumption
P: Production
I: Imported Commodity
E: Exported Commodity

38

What are the six limitations of the ecological footprint of production? ?

1) availability of non renewable resources excluded
2) Some inherently unstable activites can not be accounted for (radioactivity)
3) Doesn't take environment management into account
4) Doesn't look at ecosystem degradation over time
5) Doesn't measure resilience of eco
6) Doesn't account for use/contamination of water

39

How does all this add up in the global context?

Basically we are consuming more than earth can generate (EF has exceeded capacity since the 60's)

40

What countries account for the majority of EF?

Developed countries

41

How many countries house half of the biocapacity?

8!! Brazil highest because of forest

42

How does this all play out in terms of america?

If everyone on earth consumed at the rate of americans, we would need 4.5 earths to sustain us.

43

What Continent has the smallest EP per person but largest EP overall?

Asia

44

What Continents are ecological debtors

Asia, North America, Europe

45

Discuss North America specifically interms of EP

Has the highest biocapacity in the world, use 17% of worlds EP per person but only have 5% of worlds population

46

EF vs. Income Level

Low income has stable EP, middle have growing EP, high income has high carbon footprint but similar to middle

47

Human Developtment Vs. EP

We want to raise HDI while maintaining a low EF

48

HDI

composite measurement of life expectancy, education, income

49

How do we achieve high HDI and low EF?

sustainable energy, eating local, recycling waste, guided development, reduce dependency on wood, public trans

50

Food Chain efficieny

proportion of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next

51

What is the best things for humans to eat to keep EP low?

Grains!

52

How are crop yields and the chronically undernourished related?

In order to sustain the improvement in calorie intake of people in developing countries, we must increase the crop yield or this will not be sustained

53

What is a system?

an set of connected components that interact to for a unified whole

54

What is an ecosystem?

he assemblage of organisms (organic) together with their physical and chemical environment (inorganic)

55

What are the two rules of an ecosystem?

Energy flows THROUGH ecosystems and and elements cycle WITHIN ecosystems

56

Where does primary production fit into the food chain?

It is the base

57

Why is transforming energy into biomass not 100% efficient?

Because of secondary Biomass production which creates waste in the form of urine and feces

58

How much energy is assimilated in each level of the food chain and how much of primary production energy reaches the top?

10% each level so only 1% of primary reaches the top

59

For the reasons associated with energy assimilation in the food chain what foods SHOULD humans be eating?

GRAINS because they give you "more bang for your buck"

60

What is entomophagy and why should we do it?

The practice of eating insects. We should do it because you get way more protein, only takes 1 gallon of water to make 1lb of protein, and is 68% protein by weight

61

What is another source of protein besides insects?

PLANTS

62

NPP

Energy accumulated into biomass each year

63

Norman Borlaug contribution to food production?

Figured out how to double food production!! The founder of the Green Revolution

64

What are the 5 components of the green revolution?

1. Development of higher yielding
varieties of crops
2. Irrigation infrastructure
3. Modernization of management
techniques
4. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers
5. Pesticides/herbicides

65

What has happened to production of grain vs. per capita production since green revolution?

Per capita has leveled off while grain continues to increase in production

66

Where imporvments after green revolution more impressive in terms of per capita or overall?

OVERALL

67

What is happening to availability of crop land in developing countries?

It is decreasing

68

What is a genetically modified organism?

an organism whose genome has been directly modified with genetic engineering. e.g. Removing or adding genes, often from a different species

69

What was the Flavr Savr tomato and how did it work?

A genetically engineered tomato that could stay on the vine until completely ripe. Inserted antisense gene. Increased shelf life by preventing the production of the enzyme polygalacturonase, which degrades the cell wall, increasing susceptibility to fungal infections

70

How does genetically engineered salmon work

Growth hormone from chinkcon salmon injected into other salmon reducing time it takes salmon to reach adulthood (the gene is engineered to work all year long instead of only one season)

71

Elements are recycled in ecosystem

Just remember this

72

What is the assimilation process?

conversion from inorganic
to organic form (like photosynthesis)

73

Dissimalitory Proccess

conversion from organic to inorganic form (respiration)

74

Describe four steps of water cycle:

1) Evaporation
2) Vapor into clouds
3)precipitation
4) Runoff

75

Why is water scarce?

Because a lot of it is locked up in glaciers and ice caps making it inaccessible :(

76

What is most water used for?

To produce crops!!

77

How can you increase water use efficiency?

1) irrigation technology
2)crop rotation based on water use
3) increase biomass produce: water uptake ratio

78

What is groundwater?

Water underground in the cracks/spaces/ in soil, sand rocks

79

What is good about groundwater? (3)

1) High quality and low seasonal fluctuation
2)Less susceptible to pollution
3)Investment scaled to demand

80

Aquifer

layer in ground of permeable or porous material like sand where water is stored and flows

81

What is the high plains water district?

The area where the High Plains aquifer is. Has a great amount of water and has a depeletion rate 10X higher than other regions. Will be 50% smaller in 2050.

82

Artesian aquifer

water is confined under
pressure between layers of impervious rock
• Porous nature of limestone filters water as it passes through – does not require treatment
– Like a saturated sponge with pipes than an
underground pool
• A lot of water, but only a small percentage is economically feasible to get

83

when is a spring dry?

when aquifer is less than 95% full

84

managing water quality

Once water becomes contaminated, it will be difficult or impossible to clean.
– Protection of endangered species,
ecosystems, recreation
– Limit development in recharge and contributing zones –much of which is not within city limits

85

Weather

haracteristics of the atmosphere over a short period of time,
usually no more than a few days

86

Climate

The statistics of weather over long period of time

87

IPPC

Fifth Assesement report: a collaboration of countries working to understand climate change

88

Historical Temperature

Data network showing temperature throughout years

89

How does ice core help understand climate?

Stores information about past: nowfall that collects on glaciers each year captures atmospheric concentrations of dust, sea-salts, ash, gas bubbles and human pollutants

90

What is Dating Horizons

analyzing isotopes of oxygen to determine when massive events occurred (like volcanic erruption)

91

Tree rings

trees are the oldest thing on planet. Look at rings vs temperature data (correlates)

92

Varves

Layer in earth under water. Can look at calcium carbonate and see how it relates to CO2 in atmosphere

93

Northern Temp Reconstruction

last three decades have been the warmest since 1850. Rate of increase has gone up GLOBALLY

94

Why do we use anomolies?

SO THAT THE DATA CAN BE COMPARED AND COMBINED. They measure the deviation from the average temperature normalizing the data from different regions do see the extreme differences in average temp

95

How confident are we in global warming?

SUPER because there is hard science to back it up

96

Light=

energy=temperature change

97

Greenhouse gases

1)Sunbeam goes through greenhouse gas region but some reflect back up (refraction).
2) Radiation that gets through warms up surface of earch and then reflects back up
3) Some gets reflected back down as greenhouse gase

98

Radiative Foce

Contribution of gas to the energy balance in atmosphere

99

Who are the players in greenhouse gases?

Water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide

100

Aspects of carbon cycle:

1)Energy assimilated and dismillated quickly (photosyntheis and respiration)
2) Atmosphere ocean exchange (Ocean is CO2 sink)
3) carbon sediments disolution a slow process LARGEST STORAGE OF EARTHS CARBON)

101

Flux in carbon cycle is relatively slow so what is the problem?

The carbon is experiencing the cumulative effect (not getting absorbed fast enough by carbon sinks)

102

How do we fix the cumulative effect problem?

Reduce fossil fuel use, plant more trees, microbes to suck up carbon, algae as biofuel, reduce livestock

103

What is the evidence of antrhopogentic contribution?

Hard science shows increase in carbon since ice age (nitrous oxide and methane have also increased)

104

Where do greenhouse gases come from?

Forestry, ag, industry, energy supply, transportation, builidings

105

Wha is the multilayered approach?

Dealing with all parts of the problem together

106

Effect Size

shows contribution of radiative forces

107

What molecules effect earths atomosphere balance?

CO2, N2O, H2O

108

Aerosols Effect On enviroment

Definintly contribute to green house gases and have POSITIVE (aditional) effect on atmosphere

109

CO2

most important effector of atmosphere and the one we know the most about

110

Temp Vs. CO2

Strong correlation between increased temp and increased CO2 in atmosphere

111

How do we predict climate change effect?

using models looking at representative concentration pathways

112

Variable climates

we will have an increase in cold and hot climates resulting in decreased crop yield

113

Sea Ice Decline

This is the most porminent indicator of climate change. There will be NO sea ice by 2070.

114

What are the consequences of sea ice decline?

Loss of habitat
Sea Level rising (galveston under water in 50 years)
Acidification of ocean
Coral Bleaching

115

Species Range Shift

Species are shifting in there variation due to climate change (such as butterflys)

116

What are the effects of climate change on reproduction in animals?

Reproduction time increasing
Migrate earlier and mess up food chain
Ex: Tree swallows nests-birds breed earlier than normal

117

The Ozone Hole

Aerosols caused hole in ozone but source of problem has identified steps to reverse effects

118

Biodiversity

The number, variety and variability of living organisms and how these change from one location to another and over time

119

Biomes

are areas with similar abiotic factors such as climate, relief, geology, soils and biotic factors such as vegetation.

120

Biodiversity hotspots

places where there is a ton of diversity in species

121

Total species richness (TSR)

number of species in a given region

122

Challenge of species richness

hard to detect different species but but does not capture the complexity of the ecological systems we are try to protect.

123

Ecologicl Indicators

use quantitative data to measure aspects of biodiversity, ecosystem condition, services, or drivers of change.

124

cosystem extent and status

the coverage of ecosystems

125

Ecological Capital

further divided into biotic raw material (such as total species richness) and abiotic raw materials (such as soil nutrients), indicates the amount of resources available for ecosystems to
function.

126

Ecological Functioning

such as lake trophic status) measures the performance of ecosystems

127

Are more species rich systems more ecologically complex?

NO! alot of the species are doing the same thing

128

How do you measure more than species richness?

Abundance, Variation, Distribution

129

Abundance

how much there is of any one type.
• Abundance matters more than the presence of a range of genetic varieties or species for maintaining ecosystem function.

130

Variation

e number of different types over space and time.
• For understanding population persistence, variation in genetic composition among individuals in a population can provide more insight than species richness.

131

Distribution

where quantity or variation in biodiversity occurs.

132

To improve our predictions of how diversity loss influences the goods and services of ecosystems what three things must we do?

(1) link the ecosystem functions to the provisioning and regulating
services of ecosystems
•(2) expand the focus of research to better mimic realistic extinction scenarios and trophic structures of natural ecosystems
• (3) develop mathematical models that can scale experimental results to whole landscapes.

133

Ecosystem services

the benefits ecosystems provide to humans.

134

Provisioning services

such as food, clean water, timber, fiber, and genetic resources

135

Regulating Services

such as the regulation of climate, floods, disease, water quality, and pollination

136

Cultural Services

such as recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits

137

supporting services

such as soil formation, and nutrient cycling

138

Invasion resistence

More diverse ecosystems are more resistant to invasive species

139

Climate regulation

diversity of plants influences climate at local, regional, and global scales

140

Pest, Disease, Pollution

The ecosystem's ability to control pests is strongly dependent on biodiversity and benefits food security, rural households, and national incomes of many countries.

141

Pollination

worldwide declines in the diversity of pollinating insects that are essential for the reproduction of many plants

142

Corals

• Habitat construction
• Nurseries for many animals • Spawning grounds for fish
• Nutrient cycling • Wave buffering and sediment stabilization • Aesthetic beauty = tourism

143

What is going on now with biodiversity?

Current rates of change and loss exceed those of the historical past by several orders of magnitude and show no indication of slowing.

144

What is going on with species extinction?

Humans have increased extinction rate by 3X

145

Driver

any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem

146

What is the major drive in terrestrial systems?

Land use change

147

What is the biggest driver in marine biodiversity loss?

Overfishing!!

148

3 drivers in freshwater systems?

Physical change (like dams)
invasion of species
Pollution

149

Eutrophication

nrichment of an ecosystem with chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or both