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Flashcards in Human Factors Deck (74)
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1

What was in 1920

Dawn of air travel

Rapid development of aircraft = faster, further and more passengers

2

What happened in 1940

Standardisation of ergonomics

Design
Layout of controls
Layout of indicators
Comfort
Ease of use

3

Why are statistics important

To identify trends

4

What is in the 5 M model

Man
Machine
Mission
Management
Medium (operational environment)

5

What % of accidents are due to human error

70%

6

Top 3 causes of accidents in order

1) loss of control in flight (LOC-I)
2) controlled flight into terrain (CFIT)
3) runway excursion - leaving runway

7

What is the biggest reason for the reduction in Hull loss

Gpws- ground proximity warning

8

What does training giving you

Knowledge
Skill
Ability

9

Before training how many mistakes do you make

1 in ever 100 times doing something

10

How many mistakes do you make after training

1 mistake in ever 1000 times doing something

11

How does mcc differ from crm

Mcc focuses on inside the cockpit

Whereas crm is everyone involved in ensuring the aircrafts safety

12

What is the James Reason error chain

Swiss cheese model

13

What is the Swiss cheese model

Swiss cheese has holes

The holes represent errors/ threats / undesired states


If go through all holes = accident

If you hit the cheese = no accident

14

What are the 5 eliminate for a good safety culture

1) informed culture = sharing knowledge

2) reporting culture = people feel able to report their errors

3) flexible culture = able to be flexible

4) learning culture = constantly learning

5) just culture = people encouraged tor providing safety related info
Clear line between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour

National culture can also affect safety culture (eg French speaking French)

15

What is the average accident rate

Accident = resulting in injury or fatality

1.2 / million flights

16

What % of accidents are caused by human error

70-80%

17

What is the most common cause of pilot induced error

Loss of directional control

18

What is the most common form of loss of directional control which results in an accident

Controlled flight into terrain

19

What are the icao competency’s

Knowledge
Skill
Attitude

20

Is it possible to stop humans making errors

Nope

21

What are the 3 basic components of TEM (threat error management)

Avoid threats
Avoid errors
Avoid undesired aircraft states

22

What is a threat

External factor that cannot be influenced by the crew

23

What is a latent threat

A threat that is dormant in the system

Eg a wrongly inputted waypoint but a engineer

Luls you into False sense of security

24

What are some environmental threats

Weather
Atc
Airport
Terrain
Other = similar call signs

25

What are some organisational threats

Operational pressure
Aircraft (poor design)
Cabin
Maintenance
Ground
Dispatch
Crew scheduling error

26

What is a error

Influenced by the crew

27

What are some procedural errors

SOPS
Checklists
Callouts
Briefings
Documentation

28

What are some aircraft handling errors

Manual handling / flight control
Automation
Systems / radios / instruments
Ground nav

29

What are some communication errors

Crew to external
Pilot to pilot

30

What are some undesired aircraft state

Aircraft handling: vertical/ lateral / speed deviations / unstable approach

Ground nav: wrong taxiway etc

Incorrect aircraft configuration: wrong mass and balance / engines / flaps / automation

31

What are the error management strategies (long versions)

Error prevention:
Avoiding all threats / errors

Error reduction:
Minimising likelihood / magnitude of any errors

Error detection:
Making any errors appear as fast as possible = enabling recovery quicker

Error recovery

Error tolerance:
System to be tolerant to errors

32

Error management strategies (short)

Avoid > trap > mitigate

33

What are the 3 categories of individual and team countermeasures

Planning countermeasure

Execution countermeasure

Review countermeasure

34

What is an omission

Missing something out

35

What is a violation

Purposely not doing something properly / missing it out

36

What is a routine violation

Developed from an exceptional violation
Can lead to change in SOP

37

What is an exceptional violation

Can lead to routine violation
BUT
May be one off and can result in a disaster

38

What is an example of a active error

Takeoff over rotate = tail strike

39

What is a active threat / error

Happening at that moment = Immediate consequence

Usually occurs at the human machine interface

40

What is Murphy’s law

If anything can go wrong it will

If a system can be operated incorrectly sooner or later it will be

41

What is the different parts of internal error generation

Sensing errors:
To react from error we must first detect it

Representing errors:
Perception can cause many errors / illusions

Action slips
Faults / mistakes

Decision making:
False hypothesis = confirmation bias
Motivation
Arousal / stress levels
Distractions

42

What are the two forms of distraction

Channelised attention / distraction:

Concentrate so much on getting right pitch = miss turning point (fixation)



Dispersed attention:
Concentrating on so many things forget to put gear down

43

What is external error generation

SHELL

S= software (procedures, symbology)
H = hardware (machine)
E= environment
L= liveware (human)

44

SHELL model what is: liveware to liveware

How you work and interact with other liveware (people)

Mcc crm

45

SHELL model what is: liveware to hardware

How you work with a physical aspect of the system

Eg bells / warnings

If you don’t know what the bells / warnings mean = L>H error

3 point altimeter = difficult to use

46

How much more difficult to use is the 3 point altimeter

3 times harder to read

47

How much do errors increase by using a 3 point altimeter

20%

48

SHELL model what is: liveware to software

Non physical aspect of the system

SOP etc

Manuals / checklists = software

Procedures / training

Mode error = not knowing what mode the aircraft is in

49

SHELL model what is: liveware to environmental

Too hot / noisy / humidity etc

Terrain / weather etc

Fuel policy / rostering (organisational policy) jet lag

50

What is a reversible error

One that can be cleared (deleting words off a page)

51

What are different types of error prevention

Computer = won’t let u retract wheels if still on ground

Cross monitoring = flight deck monitor each other (and yourself)

Machine monitoring = machine monitors what we are doing

52

What is decision making

Evaluating options

Step by step scientific process
= picking solution from possible options

53

What does good decision making process depend on

Subjective / objective criteria

Aim to be achieved

Risks associated with each solution

Personality of the decision maker (stable personality = best personality for good decisions)

Bias

Perception / situational awareness

Stress / emotions

Training

Motivation

Commercial factors

54

What positive factors are there for humans making decisions

Creativity

Innovative

Can cope with novel situations

If have correct skill can solve problems / make quick decisions

55

What are he mechanics of decision making

1) diagnose + design objective
2) collect info
3) risk assessment
4) develop options
5) evaluate
6) decide
7) assign
8) implement decision
9) consequences
10) review / feedback

56

What errors is decision making prone to

Confirmation bias
Expectancy
Saliency (how obvious info is)
Over confidence / complacency
Fatigue / overload
Denial

57

What are the limitations for decision making

Attention
Stress
Lack of experience

58

Judgement / risk assessment / decision making in the air is based on the:

Pilot
Aircraft
Environmental conditions
Time available

59

What is commitment

When no other changes can be made = point of no return

60

How does the eye datum point in the cockpit help

Makes sure you’re in the best position

If eye below point = flatter approach / undershoot

61

Cockpit seat design is made so that they are

Comfy

Good lumber support (evenly distribute pressure in disks in spine

Suspension to absorb vibrations / can protect from heavy G forces

5 point seat belt = protect against G forces

Stood you from submarining (slouching)

Designed around anthropometric data (average persons body dimensions)

62

What is the different between analogue and digital

Digital = quantitive info (numbers)

Analogue = qualitative (gauge)

63

What must controls and instruments be

Standardised

64

What is the difference between primary and secondary engine instruments

Primary:
Larger / usually on the left = more important info

Secondary = normally on right of screen / smaller not essential info

65

What must cockpit lighting do

Should avoid harsh shadows and glare

66

What must warnings and cautions be

Attention getting but not startling

Audio best for getting attention

Visual more informative / precise

67

What are the advantages of automation

Reduces workload
More accurate
Reduces errors
Reliable
Will fly it smoother / do better landings
Reduce flight deck size (increased profits)

68

What are the automation disadvantages

Become more complacent (automation complacency)

Reduced monitoring (passive monitoring)

Reduces situational awareness “out of the loop”

Bored = experimentation “oh what does that button do”

Blinkered concentration (fixation)

Confusion automation “what’s the plane doing Now”

Older pilots miss trust automation

Manual skills deteriorate (can be a result of complacency)

Communication can break down
Automation can reduce communication

Difficult to change plans

69

How to adapt to automation

Treat automation as another crew member

Always keep ontop of automation

70

What is the irony of automation

Thay pilots are to oversee an automated system which they do poorly

71

What is bainbridges irony

The more reliable the system, the less human operators have to do, so the less attention they pay to the system while it’s operating


Automation has acted to lower pilots workload for flight phases in which it was already low and increase workload for phases in which it was already high

72

What are design induced errors

All future EASA design efforts especially avionics / automation will be based upon :
detectability
Recoverability
Tolerability

73

What are the 2 types of error systems

Tolerant / protected system:
If one error occurs the rest of the flight is protected

Vulnerable / unprotected system:
1 error can jeopardise the whole flight and cause other system to fail

74

Is a facial gesture is an example of explicit or implicit communication

Implicit