Flashcards in Hypo/Hyperglycemia Deck (38):
Normal range for blood sugar
what is the organ responsible for moderating blood glucose levels?
delta cells secrete
a cells secrete
B cells secrete
Glucagon acts through what type of receptor?
Insulin acts through what type of receptor?
3 major effects of insulin
1. Decrease blood glucose levels.
2. Promotes storage of fat
3. Enhances protein anabolism
Type 1 diabetes is a result of
no B cells
Type 2 diabetes is a result of
3 targets of insulin
Liver, Adipose, Skeletal muscle
What are the acute complications of diabetes?
Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemia
Gluconeogenesis converts what to what?
Pyruvate to glucose
pyruvate and amino acids from muscles when they are used to make energy result in
keto acid and alanine
Important intermediate in the TCA cycle (fat metabolism)
What are 3 examples of ketone bodies
Acetone, acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate
Acetyl CoA from B oxidation is converted to what when oxaloacetate is depleted in the TCA cycle?
Hyperosmalar hyperglycemic state most often occurs in which individuals?
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
Hypoglycemia results usually in diabetic individuals due to?
Problems in medications-over medication/poor eating
Most chronic complications of diabetes are what type of disease?
Hyperglycemia damages vessels due to what?
Reactive oxygen species-enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia
What does A1C test test for?
measures glycation of hemoglobin-allows us to measure average glucose level over a period of time. 6 or below is good.
Fasting glucose blood test measures
blood glucose level immediately-preferred test for type 1 or 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes
glucose tolerance test
measures how well your body tolerates increased glucose levels
How to treat Type 1 diabetes?
secretagogues are used to treat what type of diabetes and what do they do?
Type II, help beta cells secrete insulin
What are 2 sensors for blood glucose levels?
Liver and B cells
ATP/ADP ratio high results in
ATP/ADP ratio low results in
insulin not secreted
Sulfonylureas are drugs that do what
beat down glucose levels generally-duration of 12-24 hours
Meglitinides are drugs used for what?
Lower glucose levels-taken right before a meal
Both sulfonylureas and meglitinides work by...
inhibiting K+ efflux from ATP/ADP regulated K+ channels
GLP-1 (glucagon like peptide 1) act on GLP-1 receptor on B cells to stimulate insulin release
why is metformin so good?
Insulin sparing, increases glucose uptake and reduces hepatic glucose production-helps lose weight, less risky
Metformin opposes what?
Drugs used to decrease insulin resistance
agonists of the PPAR-y receptor