Hypo/Hyperglycemia Flashcards Preview

Pharm 1 > Hypo/Hyperglycemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypo/Hyperglycemia Deck (38):
1

Normal range for blood sugar

80-120 mg/dl

2

what is the organ responsible for moderating blood glucose levels?

The liver

3

delta cells secrete

somatostatin

4

a cells secrete

glucagon

5

B cells secrete

insulin

6

Glucagon acts through what type of receptor?

GProtein

7

Insulin acts through what type of receptor?

Tyrosine kinase

8

3 major effects of insulin

1. Decrease blood glucose levels.
2. Promotes storage of fat
3. Enhances protein anabolism

9

Type 1 diabetes is a result of

no B cells

10

Type 2 diabetes is a result of

insulin resistance

11

3 targets of insulin

Liver, Adipose, Skeletal muscle

12

What are the acute complications of diabetes?

Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemia

13

Gluconeogenesis converts what to what?

Pyruvate to glucose

14

pyruvate and amino acids from muscles when they are used to make energy result in

keto acid and alanine

15

Important intermediate in the TCA cycle (fat metabolism)

oxalacetate

16

What are 3 examples of ketone bodies

Acetone, acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutyrate

17

Acetyl CoA from B oxidation is converted to what when oxaloacetate is depleted in the TCA cycle?

Ketone bodies

18

Hyperosmalar hyperglycemic state most often occurs in which individuals?

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

19

Hypoglycemia results usually in diabetic individuals due to?

Problems in medications-over medication/poor eating

20

Most chronic complications of diabetes are what type of disease?

vascular diseases

21

Hyperglycemia damages vessels due to what?

Reactive oxygen species-enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia

22

What does A1C test test for?

measures glycation of hemoglobin-allows us to measure average glucose level over a period of time. 6 or below is good.

23

Fasting glucose blood test measures

blood glucose level immediately-preferred test for type 1 or 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes

24

glucose tolerance test

measures how well your body tolerates increased glucose levels

25

How to treat Type 1 diabetes?

Insulin

26

secretagogues are used to treat what type of diabetes and what do they do?

Type II, help beta cells secrete insulin

27

What are 2 sensors for blood glucose levels?

Liver and B cells

28

ATP/ADP ratio high results in

Insulin secretion

29

ATP/ADP ratio low results in

insulin not secreted

30

Sulfonylureas are drugs that do what

beat down glucose levels generally-duration of 12-24 hours

31

Meglitinides are drugs used for what?

Lower glucose levels-taken right before a meal

32

Both sulfonylureas and meglitinides work by...

inhibiting K+ efflux from ATP/ADP regulated K+ channels

33

Incretins are

GLP-1 (glucagon like peptide 1) act on GLP-1 receptor on B cells to stimulate insulin release

34

why is metformin so good?

Insulin sparing, increases glucose uptake and reduces hepatic glucose production-helps lose weight, less risky

35

Metformin opposes what?

glucagon (anti-glucagon)

36

Drugs used to decrease insulin resistance

thiazolidinediones

37

agonists of the PPAR-y receptor

thiazolidinediones

38

Drugs that inhibit the digestion of glucose

a-glucosidase inhibitor