Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships Deck (45)
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1

communications between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are both ___ and ____

neural and hormonal

2

endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary can secrete what hormones

ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH
GH
Prolactin

3

anterior pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by what portal system

hypophysial portal system

4

the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system makes what possible

direct hormone delivery to the anterior pituitary
also prevents hypothalamic hormones from appearing in the circulation in high concentrations

5

as opposed to the connection of the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus, the connection with the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus only contains _____ connections

neural connections

6

the posterior pituitary is a collection of ______, whose cell bodies reside in the hypothalamus

collection of axons

7

posterior pituitary secretes what hormones into circulation

ADH
oxytocin

8

posterior pituitary contains axons from what nerve populations within the hypothalamus

supraoptic nucleus
paraventricular nucleus

9

tertiary endocrine diseases involve the

hypothalamus

10

secondary endocrine diseases involve the

pituitary

11

primary endocrine diseases involve the

peripheral glands

12

trh from the hypothalamus induces secretion of what substance from what cells in the AP

TSH from thyrotrophs

13

Nerves from the hypothalamus synapse on vascular beds in the ______ ______ to signal the endocrine cells in the _________ _______

Median eminence
Anterior pituitary

14

Tumors of the pituitary may manifest as what clinical symptoms

Loss of eyesight/changes in vision

15

Supraoptic neurons release what neuropeptide

ADH

16

Paraventricular neurons secrete what neuropeptide into the posterior pituitary

Oxytocin

17

Hypothalamic neurons secrete at a set rate in _____ patterns that are associated with ______ rhythms

Pulsatile pattern
Circadian rhythms

18

Growth hormone is produced by what cells in the ________

Somatotropes in the anterior pituitary

19

The receptor for growth hormone is of what type

JAK-STAT signaling cascade

20

Growth hormone can be inhibited by
1)
and
2)

Somatostatin
IGF-1

21

What factors stimulate GH

Fasting/hunger/starvation
Hypoglycemia

Lesser things
Hormones of puberty
Exercise
Sleep
Stress

22

Functions of GH
1. Growth
2. ______ -________
3. __________

Growth by hypertrophy
Cell reproduction (hyperplasia = increasing number of cells or proliferation rate)
Metabolism
Increases glycogen and fat breakdown for energy/increases protein synthesis

23

Indirect actions of IGF

Trophic function
Signals liver to produce IGF
IGF targets almost every cell in the body to grow and divide

24

Excessive growth hormone before closure of bone epiphyseal

Gigantism

25

Excessive growth hormone after closure of bone epiphyseal

Acromegaly

26

Failure to suppress GH production in response to an oral load of glucose is a sensitive test for

Acromegaly

27

Metabolic functions of GH

Diabetogenic effect (increase in blood glucose) causing insulin resistance
Increased protein synthesis and organ growth
Increased linear growth

28

Lactotropes, when stimulated by the hypothalamus secretes what hormone

Prolactin

29

Prolactin is typically inhibited by what signal in the brain

Hypothalamic dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion

30

Prolactin suppresses what other hormones

suppresses GnRH
Inhibiting release of LH and FSH
Decreases reproductive function and suppresses sexual drive