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Flashcards in Intro DSA Deck (35)
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1

Function of the endocrine system

Regulates multiple organs within the body to meet growth and reproduction demands

2

Endocrine glands (10)

Hypothalamus
Anterior and posterior pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
Gonads
Endocrine pancreas
Placenta

3

Hormones of the hypothalamus

TRH - thyroptropin-releasing hormone
CRH - Corticotropin releasing hormone
GnRH - gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Somatostatin
Dopamine

4

Anterior pituitary hormones

TSH - Thyroid stimulating hormone
FSH - follicle stimulating hormone
LH - Luteinizing hormone
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
MSH - melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Growth hormone
Prolactin

5

Posterior pituitary hormone

ADH - anti-diuretic hormone
Oxytocin

6

Pancreas hormones

Insulin
Glucagon

7

Adrenal medulla hormones

Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

8

Kidney hormones

Renin
1, 15 - dihydroxycholecalciferol

9

Adrenal cortex hormones

Cortisol
Aldosterone
Adrenal androgens

10

Corpus luteum hormones

Estradiol
Progesterone

11

Placental hormones

HCG - human horionic gonadotropin
Estriol
Progesterone
HPL - human placental lactogen

12

Three general classes of hormones

Proteins and peptides
Amines
Steroids

13

Protein and peptide hormones are stored in _______ until needed
Polypeptides with > 100 aa are ______
Polypeptides with <100 aa are _______
_______-soluble

Stored in vesicles until needed
>100 are proteins
<100 are peptides
Water soluble

14

Protein and peptide hormones are usually synthesized as ___________ that are modified in the ____ and packaged in the ______

Synthesized as preprohormones
Modified in the ER
Packaged in the golgi

15

Cholesterol comes from what two sources for steroid hormone synthesis

80% comes from LDL particles through receptor mediated endocytosis
20% comes from de novo synthesis from Acetyl coenzyme A

16

Amine hormones are derived from what AA

Tyrosine

17

Two groups of amine hormones and their site of synthesis

Catecholamines —> cytosol and secretory granules
Thyroid —> thyroid gland and stored as thyroglobullin in follicles within the gland

18

Catecholamine receptor location

Cell-membrane associated receptor

19

Thyroid hormone receptor location

Cross cell membrane and act through nuclear receptors

20

Examples of catecholamines

L-DOPA
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

21

What type of hormones are cleared the quickest? Slowest?

Quickest - proteins
Slowest - thyroid hormones

22

TRH hormone from the ______ stimulates what actions

TRH comes from the hypothalamus Stimulates secretion of TSH and prolactin

23

Corticotropin-releasing hormone from the ______ causes secretion of what hormone

Hypothalamus
ACTH

24

Gonadotyropin releasing hormone from the _______ prompts the secretion of ___ and _____

Hypothalamus
LH and FSH

25

Somatostatin or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone prompts what action

Inhibits secretion of growth hormone
Comes from the hypothalamus

26

Dopamine or prolactin-inhibiting factor from the hypothalamus is what class of hormone and has what action

Amine
Inhibits secretion of prolactin

27

Secretion of hormones can be modulate by what two routes

Neural mechanism - neural input to an endocrine cell increases or decreases hormonal secretion
Feedback mechanism - more common, some element of the physiological response feeds back on the endocrine gland and changes secretion rate

28

Examples of positive feedback mechanisms in hormone regulation

Menstrual cycle - increase estrogen levels in blood to stimulate FSH and LH release from AP —> further increases estrogen levels leading to ovulation

Delivery of fetus: oxytocin stimulates and enhances labor contractions

29

Describe a long-loop feedback

Hormone released from 3d tier (peripheral endocrine gland) feeds back all the way to 1st tier (hypothalamus) and second tier (pituitary)

30

Describe the short loop feedback mechanism

Hormone secreted from the 2nd tier feed back to the first