I - Cell Injury, Cell Death and Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in I - Cell Injury, Cell Death and Adaptations Deck (105)
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31

Appearance of lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm.

Fatty Change(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.23

32

Surface blebs, increased eosinophilia of the cytoplasm, cellular swelling.

Reversible/ Early Ischemic Injury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.18

33

Cell injury with loss of nuclei, cellular fragmentation and leakage of cellular contents.

Irreversible/ Necrotic cellular injury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.18

34

Cell injury with loss of microvilli, blunting, appearance of smal amorphous densities, ER dilation and disaggregation of granular and fibrillar elements.

Reversible/ Early Ischemic Injury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.41

35

A form of tissue necrosis in which the component cells are dead but the basic tissue architecture is preserved. The affected tissues take on a firm texture.

Coagulative necrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.43

36

Characterized by digestion of dead cells, resulting in transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass.

Liquefactive necrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology , 9th ed. p.43

37

Refers to focal areas of fat destruction, typically resulting from release of activated pancreatic lipases into the substance of the pancreas and the peritoneal cavity. The foci of necrosis contain shadowy outlines of necrotic fat cells with basophilic calcium deposits, surrounded by an inflammatory reaction.

Fat necrosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 44

38

A special form of necrosis usually seen in immune reactions involving blood vessels. Deposits of immune complexes, together with fibrin that has leaked out of vessels, result in a bright pink and amorphous appearance in H&E stains, called "fibrinoid" (fibrin-like) by pathologists.

Fibrinoid necrosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 44

39

Seen in focal bacterial or, occasionally, fungal infections, because microbes stimulate the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the enzymes of leukocytes digest the tissue.

Liquefactive necrosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.10

40

This term is usually applied to a limb, generally the lower leg, that has lost its blood supply and has undergone coagulative necrosis involving multiple tissue layers.

Gangrenous necrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.43

41

Friable, white appearance of necoris. It appears as a structureless collection of fragmented or lysed cells and amorphous granular debris enclosed within a distinctive inflammatory border.

Caseous necrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p.43

42

Obstruction of the blood supply would lead to which type of pathologic process in the brain parenchyma?

Liquefactive necrosis (TOPNOTCH)

43

The type of necrosis seen in tissue injury associated with acute pancreatitis

Enzymatic fat necrosis. (TOPNOTCH)

44

A 32 y/o male complains of chronic cough and weight loss. CXR showed an ill-defined mass along the apex of the right lobe. Sputum AFB was positive. Biopsy of the lung will most likely reveal what kind of necrosis?

Caseation necrosis (TOPNOTCH)

45

These are chemical species with a single unpaired electron in the outer orbital.

Free radicals(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.18

46

They block free radical formation or inactivate free radicals. Examples of these are the lipid-soluble vitamins E, A, and C, and glutathione in the cytosol.

Antioxidants(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 48

47

Most common cause of cell injury in clinical medicine.

Ischemia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.18

48

Patient presented with heaviness in the chest, nausea, and diaphoresis. Troponin I and CKMB were noted to be elevated. What is the mechanism of the elevation of cardiac enzyme?

Leakage of intracellular proteins through the damaged cell membrane reflecting irreversible injury and cell death in the tissues. (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 50

49

Composed of membrane-bound vesicles of cytosol and organelles seen in programmed-cell death.

Apoptotic Bodies(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.19

50

Characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatic condensation, formation of cytoplasmic blebs and apoptotic bodies, and phagocytosis by macrophages.

ApoptosisTOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 53

51

Type of cell death in embryogenesis

ApoptosisTOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 52

52

Type of cell death in menopause

ApoptosisTOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 52

53

Restoration of blood flow to ischemic but otherwise viable tissue paradoxically results in exacerbated and accelerated injury.

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.18

54

Pathway of apoptosis trigerred by loss of survival signals, DNA damage and accumulation of misfolded proteins. Inhibited by Anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl family.

Mitochondrial / Intrinsic Pathway(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.22

55

Pathway of apoptosis responsible for elimination of self-reactive lymphocytes and damage by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Initiated by TNF receptors.

Death Receptor / Extrinsic Pathway(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.22

56

It involves sequestration of cellular organelles into cytoplasmic autophagic vacuoles that fuse with lysosomes and digest enclosed material.

Autophagy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed. p. 61

57

Refers to any abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within parenchymal cells. Most often seen in the liver but can also occur in the heart, sk m., and kidneys.

Fatty change/Steatosis(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 62

58

Other name for macrophages in contact with lipid debris of necrotic cells or abnormal forms of lipoproteins. Filled with minute, membrane-bound vacuoles of lipid, imparting a foamy appearance to their cytoplasm.

Foam cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.24

59

Presence of cholesterol-filled macrophages in subepithelial connective tissue of skin or tendons.

Xanthomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed. p.24

60

Hypertrophy or hyperplasia?Cardiomegaly due to hypertension

Hypertrophy due to increased workload(TOPNOTCH)