Flashcards in I. Cells & Matrix Deck (69)
What are the four basic tissues of the human body?
epithelial, muscle, neural & connective tissues
What is osteology?
the study of bone
What are the three primary cell types of bone cell?
osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
What is the function of each type of bone cell?
osteoblast - form bone
osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone
osteoclast - remodel bone
What are the bone cells embedded in?
an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers, and various minerals
What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?
What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?
chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, and hyaluronic acid
What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?
collagen type I
What is the primary constituents of the bone minerals?
calcium, phosphate, citrate, and carbonate ions
What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?
Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?
sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium, and radium
What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?
living tissue will respond to stressors such as anxiety, tension, and pressure; bone is formed or absorbed in response to these same stressors
What three responses to "living" bone were stressed in class?
it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors such as anxiety, tension, or pressure and to age
Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?
mesenchyme and/or cartilage
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?
What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?
from the second to third month in utero
What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?
What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?
from the second to fifth month in utero
Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossificaiton?
the mandible, sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones
Which bones of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?
What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?
primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth
Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?
cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone
What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?
What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?
What is the name given to the fibro-cellular covering lining of bone?
What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?
sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation), and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?
sexual dimorphism or gender variation
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?